The problem of width of landscape boundary remains widely discussed from more then one century. The author attempts to describe a width of some landscape boundaries of a higher rank by describing the mosaic of a lower rank landscape units. The research was realised within upland landscape of Nida Basin and lowland landscape of Wigry National Park.
Ecotourism, understood as a form of leisure conforming with the principles of environmental protection and promoting its natural and cultural values, is dynamically developing in almost all parts of the world. Properly carried out, ecotourism projects may be an essential instrument of regional development. Problems of ecotourism development in four areas of West Africa, i.e. the Comoé National Park (Ivory Coast), the Dogon Country (Mali), the northern Dallol Boss Region and Kouré (Niger), and the Äir and Ténéré Natural Reserves (Niger) are discussed in the article.
A common characteristic of the chosen areas are their significant natural and cultural values and the occurrence of tourist activeness allowing to qualify them as ecotouristic sites. The analysis of both external and internal success factors in ecotourism leads to the conclusion that, in the discussed regions, ecotourism development is a positive phenomenon. It should, however, be accompanied by continuous supervision of environmental conditions and ecological education of the local population.
The paper describes features of landscape boundaries in the lowland landscape of Poland and verifies their cross-scale properties. The diversity of lithology, morphometry and land use was taken into account by delimitation of the boundaries. A scale of 1:50 000 was set as the basis. Three structural features (length, contrast and sinuosity) and two functional features (permeability and stability) were examined.
The boundaries within the research area are typically of average length, low sinuosity, high permeability and low stability. A high correspondence between the diversity of abiotic components and land use is observed, resulting in a large number of high-contrast boundaries. However, this feature does not necessarily mean that these patterns are cross scale and can be applied at a higher level of landscape hierarchy.
A geochemical/typological and regional order has been explored to describe properties of landscape boundaries for different spatial scales. Only the first of the listed orders corresponds to diversification of boundary features.
The article describes the present condition and the development trends of ornithological tourism in Poland. A questionnaire survey, participant observation and interviews have produced a description of Polish bird-watchers and ornithological tourism organizers. A partial distribution of bird-watching sites and needs for development have also been described. Polish ornithological tourism is at an early development stage, however, as in other countries, a dynamic growth of interest in this activity is found.