The objective of the work was to investigate the possibility of application of carbon and bentonite nanoparticles in carboxylated acrylonitrile-butadiene rubber (XNBR) and the related effects of the nanofillers on the structure, as well as mechanical and barrier properties, of the resulting composites. The composites were designed for use in protective clothing and gloves. XNBR compounds were modified with 2 phr of graphene flakes, graphene oxide, or modified bentonite, and crosslinked with sulfur-accelerator system. Rubber compounds were prepared using a conventional method with a laboratory rolling mill. The composites were studied in terms of structure (WAXS), surface morphology (AFM), the presence of functional groups (ATR-FTIR) barrier properties against chemical substances (mineral oil) and swelling properties, as well as mechanical properties (abrasion resistance and tensile strength). The composites were characterized by very high resistance to oil permeation (breakthrough time >480 min). The type of nanofiller added to the XNBR blend in the amount of 2 phr did not significantly affect mechanical parameters.
Aerogels are characterized by excellent insulation properties and a good resistance to high and low temperatures. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of silica aerogel on thermal properties of textile–polymer composites. Aerogel was applied in protective clothing fabric to improve its heat resistance. The composites were produced by coating a fabric made of meta-aramid (polyamide–imide) yarns with a dispersion of polychloroprene latex and synthetic resins or an acrylic–styrene dispersion with aerogel (100–700 μm particle size). The composites were subjected to thermal radiation (20 kW/m2) and their thermal properties were determined by thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry (TG/DTG). Scanning electron microscopy/X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) was used to characterize the microstructure and study the elemental composition of materials. The thermal conductivity and resistance of composites were measured with an Alambeta apparatus. The tests indicated an increase in resistance to thermal radiation by approximately 15–25%. In TG/DTG analysis, the initial temperature for an unmodified fabric was 423.3°C. After modification, it decreased to 361.8° and 365.3°C for composites with 7 and 14% of aerogel, respectively. SEM images revealed a reduction in aerogel particle size.