The Effect of Foliar Nutrition with Urea, Molybdenum, Sucrose and Benzyladenine on Yield and Some Organic Compounds of Carrot Storage Roots
The Kazan F1 carrot was cultivated in years 2004-2005 in open-work containers sized 60×40×20 cm filled in with silt loam and located on the open field under shade providing fabric. The following combinations of experiments were arranged: (1) control - without foliar nutrition, and foliar nutrition with: (2) urea, (3) solution of urea+Mo, (4) urea+Mo+BA (benzyladenine BA), (5) urea+Mo+BA+sucrose, (6) BA in the concentration of 5 mg·dm-3 and (7) BA in the concentration of 10 mg·dm-3. In combinations 2-5 the following concentrations of components in solutions were applied: urea and sucrose each in 20 g·dm-3, molybdenum 1 mg·dm-3, benzyladenine 5 mg·dm-3. Foliar nutrition was applied three times. In both years of study the greatest mass of storage roots and whole plant (haulm + root) was determined after spraying with benzyladenine in 5 mg·dm-3 concentration. Plants with urea+Mo+BA+sucrose foliar nutrition were characterized by a comparable mass of roots and whole plant but only in 2005. In both years of study plants treated with urea only had the lowest root mass and the highest content of phenolic compounds and the lowest (in 2004 and the means from 2004-2005) content of soluble sugars in roots. Foliar nutrition with urea+Mo+BA+sucrose and spraying with benzyladenine exclusively in both applied concentrations caused a significant increase in the content of sugars (in 2004 and the means from 2004-2005) as well as carotenoids (except for combination no. 7 - in 2005 and the means from 2004-2005) in storage roots.
The Effect of Foliar Nutrition with Nitrogen, Molybdenum, Sucrose and Benzyladenine on the Contents of Dry Weight, Cd, Cu and Zn in Carrot
Carrot Kazan F1 cv. was grown in containers 60x40x20 cm in size, placed on the open site under shadow fabric. The loam clay was used as the substrate, supplemented with the assimilable components to the following levels: 100 mg N, 80 mg P, 120 mg K, 80 mg Mg, 2000 mg Ca·dm-3 of the soil. In the treatments triple foliar nutrition with the following solutions: 1-control (no foliar nutrition), 2-urea, 3-urea+Mo, 4-urea+Mo+BA (benzyladenine), 5-urea+Mo+BA+sucrose, 6-BA 5 and 7-BA 10 was applied. The concentrations of 20 g·dm-3 (urea and sucrose), 1 mg·dm-3 (Mo) and 5 mg·dm-3 (benzyladenine) were applied in combined solutions, while BA alone was used either as 5 or 10 mg·dm-3. Foliar nutrition significantly affected dry weight content, Cu and Zn but had no influence on Cd concentration in carrot. The highest content of dry weight was assessed in carrot sprayed with Urea+Mo+Ba+sucrose solution and BA 10. The greatest amounts of Cu were found in storage roots of crops sprayed with Urea+Mo solution, whereas the highest contents of Zn were detected in plants receiving only urea foliar nutrition. A marked effect of interaction of foliar nutrition with the years of research were observed only for Zn concentrations in carrot. Soil of the individual experimental treatments after carrot cultivation differed significantly with respect to its pH reaction and concentrations of readily soluble forms Cd, Cu and Zn.
Sylwester Smoleń, Włodzimierz Sady and Joanna Wierzbińska
The Effect of Various Nitrogen Fertilization Regimes on the Concentration of Thirty Three Elements in Carrot (Daucus Carota L.) Storage Roots
Nitrogen fertilization can affect the uptake and accumulation of nutrients, heavy metals and trace elements in plants. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of nitrogen application on mineral composition of carrot storage roots. In 2003-2005 field experiment with carrot ‘Kazan F1’ cv. was conducted in Trzciana (50°06' N, 21°85' E, South-East Poland), each year on a different site within a single soil complex. The experiment was arranged in a split-plot design with four replications. The following combinations with various nitrogen fertilization regimes (presented as kg N·ha-1) were distinguished: 1 - Control, 2 - Ca(NO3)2 70, 3 - Ca(NO3)2 70+70, 4 - (NH4)2SO4 70 and 5 - (NH4)2SO4 70+70; where 70 kg N·ha-1 was used pre-sowing, whereas 70+70 kg N·ha-1 was applied in two rates: pre-sowing and as top-dressing. Solid nitrogen fertilizers were added to the soil in the form of: Ca(NO3)2 (15.5% N) and (NH4)2SO4 (21% N). In carrot storage roots as well as in soil samples collected after carrot cultivation, the content of the following elements was determined: Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Dy, Fe, Ga, In, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Tm, S, Sb, Sc, Sn, Sr, Ti, Y, Yb and V. Fertilization with nitrogen had significantly influenced the accumulation of Ba, Co, Dy, In, Lu, Mg, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sb, Sc, Sn and Y in carrot roots. In particular combinations, a diverse effect of N application was observed in reference to the content of mentioned elements. Revealed differences in the soil level of tested elements did not correlate (were not reflected) with the rate of its accumulation in carrot storage roots.
Sylwester Smoleń, Włodzimierz Sady and Renata Wojciechowska
The Effect of Foliar Nutrition with Nitrogen, Molybdenum, Sucrose and Benzyladenine on the Nitrogen Metabolism in Carrot Plants
The Kazan F1 carrot was cultivated in years 2004-2005 in open-work containers sized 60×40×20 cm filled in with silt loam and located on the open field under shade providing fabric. The following combinations of experiments were arranged: (1) control - without foliar nutrition, and foliar nutrition with: (2) urea, (3) solution of urea+Mo, (4) urea+Mo+BA (benzyladenine - BA), (5) urea+Mo+BA+sucrose, (6) BA in the concentration of 5 mg·dm-3 and (7) BA in the concentration of 10 mg·dm-3. In combinations 2-5 the following concentrations of components in solution were applied: urea and sucrose each in 20 g·dm-3, molybdenum 1 mg·dm-3, benzyladenine 5 mg·dm-3. Foliar nutrition was applied three times. In leaves sprayed with urea and with solution of urea+Mo as well as urea+Mo+BA, an increased concentration of NO3- was observed when compared to other sites. Foliar nutrition did not result in any significant changes in content of N-total and dry weight in leaves. Foliar application of urea, as well as the solution of urea+Mo+BA, caused an increase in the activity of nitrate reductase (NR) in leaves when compared to the control. Whereas, after spraying the plants with BA only, a noticeable decline in NR activity was revealed in comparison with the control; interestingly, a higher concentration of BA (10 mg·dm-3) was more effective. Foliar nutrition with urea+Mo+BA+sucrose and spraying with benzyladenine only (independently from the concentration) resulted in a significant decrease of the content of NO3- in storage roots when compared to other combinations. The highest level of nitrogen uptake by single storage root and leaves of one carrot plant was found after urea+Mo+BA+sucrose nutrition. In case of N uptake by yield of leaves and biological yield of whole carrot plants (roots+leaves) the highest values were observed in combination no. 6.
Among all elements taken into consideration in this research (Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Ga, In, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, Ti and V), only the concentration of Na in the ‘Kazan F1’ carrot was affected by the interaction of foliar application and nitrogen fertilization. In the case of plants fertilized by Ca(NO3)2, foliar application significantly raised Na concentration in storage roots. Compared to the control, all applied nitrogen fertilizers (results analysed independently from the foliar application factor) increased concentrations of Mg and Se in carrot. Fertilization with (NH4)2SO4 resulted in a decrease of Ba and Mo concentrations and an increase of Mn concentration, while fertilization with Ca(NO3)2 raised the contents of Sr and Be in carrot. Foliar application (analysed independently from nitrogen fertilization) considerably increased Bi and Be concentrations, yet it did not affect the contents of other elements in storage roots.
Peter Kováčik, Peter Šalamun, Sylwester Smoleń and Marek Renčo
In Slovakia more than a half of the landfill‘s waste consist of the biodegradable waste (BDW). Therefore the BDW composting can decrease significantly the production of the landfill gas as well as the financial and space requirements for landfills. However, the composts production have to be solved comprehensively, including their rational usage. In Slovakia the use of composts is ineffective if the location of their production is farther than 50 km, because of the high tranportation costs. The objective of the experiments was to determine the ratio of vermicompost in the soil growing medium in order not to decrease the yield quantity and quality of radish - the most commonly grown vegetable in the gardens in Slovakia. Five shares of vermicompost were tested in the soil substrate (0%, 10%, 20%, 25% and 50%). The results show that 50% share of vermicompost in the soil substrate, i.e. the ratio of vermicompost to soil 1:1, was not the optimal solution of the vermicompost usage. However, even this quantity of vermicompost did not have a negative impact on the weight of the aboveground and underground phytomass in comparison with the treatment without vermicompost. 50% share of vermicompost in the growing medium had the negative impact on the qualitative parameters of radish. It decreased the content of vitamin C and increased the content of nitrates in radish roots and leaves. Along with the higher share of vermicompost in the growing medium, the content of vitamin C was decreased in radish roots and leaves, and the content of nitrates in radish roots was increased. The roots of the biggest diameter, and consequently the highest yield of radish roots and leaves was formed in the treatment where the soil substrate consisted of four portions of soil and one p ortion of vermicompost (20% proportion of vermicompost).
The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of various chemical forms of iodine (I− and IO3−) and selenium (SeO32− and SeO42−) on the nutritional and health-promoting quality of carrot (Daucus carota L.) storage roots. The experiment (conducted in 2012-2014) comprised the soil fertilization of carrot ‘Kazan’ F1 in the following combinations: 1. Control, 2. KI, 3. KIO3, 4. Na2SeO4, 5. Na2SeO3, 6. KI + Na2SeO4, 7. KIO3 + Na2SeO4, 8. KI + Na2SeO3, 9. KIO3+ Na2SeO3. Iodine and selenium were applied twice: before sowing and as top dressing in a total dose of 5 kg I ha−1 and 1 kg Se ha−1. No significant influence of iodine and selenium fertilization was noted with respect to average root weight and leaf yield. Each year, the application of KI + Na2SeO4 negatively affected the content of glucose and total sugars in carrot. An increased sucrose level was noted in the roots of plants treated with KIO3 + Na2SeO4, with a total sugar concentration comparable to the control. Irrespective of the year, carrots fertilized with KI were characterized by the highest accumulation of nitrates (III) – NO2− in roots. The simultaneous introduction of iodine and selenium compounds (KI + Na2SeO4, KIO3 + Na2SeO4, KI + Na2SeO3 and KIO3 + Na2SeO3) into the soil reduced the content of nitrates (III) in carrot as compared to combinations with the individual application of these compounds. The influence of the tested factors on other analysed parameters (the content of dry weight, nitrates (V), chlorides, oxalates, citrates, free amino acids, carotenoids, phenolic compounds, phenylpropanoids, flavonols and anthocyanins as well as free radical scavenging activity (DPPH) was rather year-dependent.
Carrot is a vegetable that contains many nutrients and has strong antioxidant activity as well as pro-health potential. The level of bioactive compounds is strongly connected with the production chain. The thermal treatment of food products induces several biological, physical and chemical changes. In this study, changes in the levels of iodine, total carotenoids, total polyphenols as well as the antioxidant activity of unpeeled and peeled controls and carrots biofortified with (potassium) iodine (KJ) during cultivation due to the cooking and steaming process were investigated. The use of thermal processes resulted in a lower concentration of iodine in the roots of the control as well as in carrots biofortified with (potassium) iodine. In addition, peeling carrots caused higher losses of this trace element in the control and the biofortified carrots cooked or steamed for various times. In this study, a significant growth of the total carotenoids in peeled carrots biofortified with (potassium) iodine and of the total polyphenols in unpeeled carrots biofortified with (potassium) iodine under the influence of the cooking and steaming processes was observed compared with raw peeled and unpeeled biofortified carrots, respectively. Antioxidant activity significantly increased in the unpeeled and peeled carrots biofortified with (potassium) iodine under all thermal treatments in comparison with the raw unpeeled and peeled biofortified carrots.