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  • Author: Sylwester Świątkiewicz x
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Open access

Józefa Krawczyk, Zofia Sokołowicz, Sylwester Świątkiewicz, Jerzy Koreleski and Maja Szefer

Performance and Egg Quality of Hens from Conservation Flocks Fed a Diet Containing Maize Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS)

The objective of the study was to evaluate laying performance and quality indices of consumption and hatching eggs in hens from conservation flocks fed a diet containing maize distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). A total of 360 Greenleg Partridge (Z-11) and Rhode Island Red (R-11) hens, included in the genetic resources conservation programme in Poland, were investigated. The good performance obtained by layers fed the DDGS diet indicates that maize distillers dried grains with solubles can serve as a useful source of protein in the nutrition of hens from conservation flocks, partly replacing imported soybean meal. The dietary inclusion of DDGS improved laying performance while maintaining hatchability traits and the quality of consumption eggs. The DDGS diet had an effect on nutritionally important egg quality traits, i.e. increased protein content of egg albumen and increased concentration of oleic and linoleic acids in yolk lipids, with a simultaneous increase in n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio. Dietary inclusion of DDGS also increased yolk colour intensity and Haugh units while having no effect on eggshell quality.

Open access

Zofia Sokołowicz, Józefa Krawczyk and Sylwester Świątkiewicz

Abstract

The objective of the paper was to demonstrate the possibilities of using Polish native breeds of chickens for the production of meat for its specific quality features in the light of worldwide researches. The object of the analysis was the quality of meat from slow-growing chickens raised in varied housing systems, including capons and poulards. The findings of studies on the quality of poultry meat from native breeds obtained from post-production cockerels and from hens in their post egg-laying stage have shown that there are chances for their use in meat production. Native breed hens can also be used as foundation material for the production of capons, poulards or international mixed breeds for purposes of extensive farming. The body weight of native breed hens, including their muscle build depend on the bird’s genotype, feeding, length of exploitation and farming system. Meat from native breed hens, raised in free-range systems has less fat, but with higher polyunsaturated fatty acids in their meat muscles as well as a healthier ratio of n-6/n-3 PUFA acids. Outdoor free-range access influences the meat colour, i.e., bright coloured breast muscle (L*) as well as increased intensity of red coloration of leg muscles (b*). Caponisation of hens enhances intensified body weight gains along with increased fattening of meat. In comparison with cockerel meat, the meat of capons is more juicy, tender and of better taste, while poulard meat has distinctively favourable sensory values in comparison with broiler chicken meat.

Open access

Anna Arczewska-Włosek and Sylwester Świątkiewicz

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate, under conditions similar to commercial broiler production, the effect of the herbal extract blend (HE) at a quantity of 1 g per kg feed (200 mg of each herbal extract, Allium sativum, Salvia officinalis, Echinacea purpurea, Thymus vulgaris and Origanum

vulgare), used individually or in combination with mannan oligosaccharide (MOS; 1 g per kg feed) or chitosan (3 ml containing 2% deacetylated chitin per kg feed) on the performance parameters of broiler chickens, the results of the slaughter analysis, litter moisture and the number of oocysts excreted in feces. The experiment was conducted on 4,500 broiler chickens of both sexes kept in straw-bedded pens. Chickens were randomly assigned to 5 experimental treatments with 5 replicates (pens) of 180 birds. The experimental design included negative and positive (diclazuril, 1 mg per kg feed) control groups. The examined herbal extract blend used individually during natural exposure to the coccidia improved, compared to the negative control diet, the performance parameters to a greater extent than coccidiostat, lowered the litter moisture content and reduced the oocyst output. Combined dietary supplementation with a herbal extract blend of chitosan or mannan oligosaccharide did not result in further improvement.

Open access

Sylwester Świątkiewicz, Anna Arczewska-Włosek, Józefa Krawczyk, Witold Szczurek, Michał Puchała and Damian Józefiak

Abstract

The aim of the experiment with 240 ISA Brown hens fed the diets with standard or decreased Ca level was to evaluate the effect of selected feed additives on laying performance and eggshell quality. The hens were allocated to 10 treatments, each containing 12 cages (replicates) of 2 birds. A 2 × 5 experimental arrangement was used. From 26 to 70 wks of age, experimental diets containing 3.20 or 3.70% Ca were used. The diets were either not supplemented, or supplemented with sodium butyrate, probiotic bacteria, herb extracts blend or chitosan. The decreased dietary Ca reduced eggshell quality indices in older hens (43-69 wks) (P<0.05) without effect on performance indices. The addition of the probiotic, herb extracts, or chitosan increased the laying rate (P<0.05). In older hens, i.e. at 69 wk, chitosan increased eggshell thickness and breaking strength, while herb extracts increased eggshell thickness (P<0.05). There was no interaction between the experimental factors in performance and eggshell quality. The used feed additives had no influence on fatty acid profile of egg lipids, however diet supplementation with chitosan decreased cholesterol concentration in egg yolk lipids (P<0.05). It can be concluded that such feed additives as probiotic, herb extracts, or chitosan may positively affect performance and eggshell quality, irrespective of Ca dietary level.

Open access

Sylwester Świątkiewicz, Anna Arczewska-Włosek, Witold Szczurek, Jolanta Calik, Józefa Krawczyk and Damian Józefiak

Abstract

The trial with 240 caged ISA Brown laying hens was performed to evaluate the effect of selected feed additives on mineral utilisation as well as biomechanical (breaking strength, yielding load, stiffness) and geometrical (cortex thickness, cross-section area, weight, length) indices of tibia and femur bones. At 26 wks of age the layers were randomly assigned to 10 treatments with 12 replicates (cages) of two birds. In the study a 2 × 5 experimental scheme was used i.e. to 70 wks of age, the layers were fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous experimental diets containing reduced (3.20%) or standard (3.70%) Ca level. The diets with both Ca levels were either not supplemented, or supplemented with the studied feed additives i.e. sodium butyrate, probiotic bacteria, herbal extract blend and chitosan. There were no statistically significant effects of the experimental factors on the indices of the tibia bones. However, the diet with reduced Ca level decreased bone breaking strength, yielding load, stiffness, and mineralisation of the femur bones (P<0.05). The majority of used feed supplements, i.e. probiotic, herb extracts, and chitosan, increased biomechanical indices (breaking strength and yielding load) and mineralisation of the femur bones (P<0.05). Neither dietary Ca level nor feed additives affected dry matter, organic matter, ether extract, N-free extracts, crude fibre and ash digestibility, and P retention and excretion; however, Ca excretion and retention was lower in the hens fed the diets with reduced Ca level (P<0.05). Relative Ca retention (Ca retained as % of Ca intake) was improved by diet supplementation with probiotic, herb extracts and chitosan (P<0.05). In conclusion, this study has shown that decreased Ca dietary level (3.20%) can negatively affect bone quality in layers, while probiotic, herb extracts and chitosan addition may improve the selected biomechanical indices of the femurs, irrespective of Ca dietary concentration.

Open access

Dariusz Bednarek, Katarzyna Dudek, Krzysztof Kwiatek, Małgorzata Świątkiewicz, Sylwester Świątkiewicz and Juliusz Strzetelski

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the immune effects of genetically modified (GM), insect resistant corn (MON810) expressing toxin protein of Bacillus thuringiensis, and glyphosate-tolerant soybean meal (Roundup Ready MON-40-30-2), which are used as the feed mixture components in domestic animals. The study was conducted on 60 pigs (36 fatteners and 24 sows), 20 calves, 40 broilers, and 40 laying hens. Each species was divided into four basic nutritional groups: group I (control) - conventional feed, group II - feed consisted of GM soybean meal and non-modified corn, group III - non-modified soybean meal and GM corn, group IV - GM soybean meal and GM corn. Moreover, in the experiment on fatteners two additional groups were formed: group V - animals fed both conventional soybean meal and bruised grain, and group VI - GM soybean meal and conventional bruised grain. The results of study did not reveal any significant effect of feed mixtures containing GM components on the immune response in all animals regardless of their species and technological producing groups.

Open access

Bartosz Kierończyk, Mateusz Rawski, Jakub Długosz, Sylwester Świątkiewicz and Damian Józefiak

Abstract

The aim of this review is to present and discuss the anatomy and physiology of crop in different avian species. The avian crop (ingluvies) present in most omnivorous and herbivorous bird species, plays a major role in feed storage and moistening, as well as functional barrier for pathogens through decreasing pH value by microbial fermentation. Moreover, recent data suggest that this gastrointestinal tract segment may play an important role in the regulation of the innate immune system of birds. In some avian species ingluvies secretes “crop milk” which provides high nutrients and energy content for nestlings growth. The crop has a crucial role in enhancing exogenous enzymes efficiency (for instance phytase and microbial amylase, β-glucanase), as well as the activity of bacteriocins. Thus, ingluvies may have a significant impact on bird performance and health status during all stages of rearing. Efficient use of the crop in case of digesta retention time is essential for birds’ growth performance. Thus, a functionality of the crop is dependent on a number of factors, including age, dietary factors, infections as well as flock management. It is important to expand knowledge about the crop functions to use them effectively in poultry production. Furthermore, more scientific data is needed in the scope of immunological function of the crop as well as its microecosystem for a better understanding of the avian immune system and enhancing the health of the birds.

Open access

Józefa Krawczyk, Zofia Sokołowicz, Sylwester Świątkiewicz and Ewa Sosin-Bzducha

Abstract

The objective of the study was to test the hypothesis that eggs from native breed laying hens fed a diet containing increased amounts of local feed materials are not inferior in quality to eggs from laying hens receiving a standard diet but raised without outdoor access. The study involved Greenleg Partridge (Z-11) and Rhode Island Red hens (R-11). Within each breed, the control group (C) consisted of 60 hens kept on litter without outdoor access, stocked at 5 birds/m2 and fed a diet containing 65.3% of local feed materials. The experimental group (E) contained 60 layers maintained on litter with access to an outdoor area (11 m2 per bird) and fed a diet containing 77.1% of local feed materials. Eggs from hens of both breeds, which received diets containing increased proportions of local feed materials had lower weight but higher yolk percentage. The quality of eggshells from hens fed the diet with increased amounts of local materials was similar to that of eggshells from confined hens. Egg yolk lipids from experimental groups were characterized by a more beneficial n-6/n-3 acid ratio and elevated vitamin A levels. These eggs had better sensory scores for colour, flavour and aroma, which suggests that it is appropriate to raise native breeds of chickens with outdoor access and local feed materials can be used in extensive husbandry systems.

Open access

Jolanta Calik, Katarzyna Połtowicz, Sylwester Świątkiewicz, Józefa Krawczyk and Joanna Nowak

Abstract

The objective of the study was to determine the effect of caponizing Greenleg Partridge cockerels on slaughter parameters and meat quality. In total 80 Greenleg Partridge cockerels were assigned to two groups with 40 birds per group. Group I (control) consisted of uncastrated cockerels and group II contained birds that were castrated at 8 weeks of age. Birds were kept until 24 weeks of age and fed the same diet ad libitum. Body weight was recorded at 1, 8, 16 and 24 weeks of age. Dressing percentage, proportion of breast and leg muscles, giblets and abdominal fat, and microstructure of the pectoralis superficialis muscle were determined postmortem. Physicochemical characteristics of meat (pH, CIE L*a*b* colour, water holding capacity, drip loss, thawing loss, cooking loss, shear force, texture parameters and chemical composition) were determined and sensory evaluation was performed. The castration of Greenleg Partridge cockerels contributed to increases in body weight, dressing percentage, and carcass muscle and fat content, and changed the colour of bird skin and muscles. The leg muscles of capons were characterized by higher pH24h, better water holding capacity, a tendency for higher fat concentration, and better sensory quality. The breast muscles of castrated cockerels lost more water and were tougher than the same muscles from uncastrated cockerels, but received better scores for flavour. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that the caponized Greenleg Partridge cockerels can be used as a valuable material for production of high quality meat.

Open access

Dorota Bederska-Łojewska, Sylwester Świątkiewicz, Anna Arczewska-Włosek and Tomasz Schwarz

Abstract

A high content of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), namely arabinoxylans (AX), in rye is a reason for the potential adverse effect of this grain on intestinal functions, gut microflora, absorption of nutrients and performance indices. As such, the use of rye grain in intensively produced poultry diets is limited. However, recently developed new types of hybrid rye are characterised not only by increased yield potential, resistance to fungus and pests and low production costs, but also the content of antinutritive substances may be reduced in these varieties. The aim of this paper is to discuss the mechanisms of NSP effects in the digestive tract, as well as to review the results of recent studies on the use of rye in poultry nutrition. Based on the literature data, it can be concluded that the use of new hybrid rye varieties with decreased NSP concentration and NSP-hydrolising enzymes may be a way of increasing the share of rye grain in poultry diets.