On the Optimum Architecture of the Biologically Inspired Hierarchical Temporal Memory Model Applied to the Hand-Written Digit Recognition
In the paper we describe basic functions of the Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM) network based on a novel biologically inspired model of the large-scale structure of the mammalian neocortex. The focus of this paper is in a systematic exploration of possibilities how to optimize important controlling parameters of the HTM model applied to the classification of hand-written digits from the USPS database. The statistical properties of this database are analyzed using the permutation test which employs a randomization distribution of the training and testing data. Based on a notion of the homogeneous usage of input image pixels, a methodology of the HTM parameter optimization is proposed. In order to study effects of two substantial parameters of the architecture: the patch size and the overlap in more details, we have restricted ourselves to the single-level HTM networks. A novel method for construction of the training sequences by ordering series of the static images is developed. A novel method for estimation of the parameter maxDist based on the box counting method is proposed. The parameter sigma of the inference Gaussian is optimized on the basis of the maximization of the belief distribution entropy. Both optimization algorithms can be equally applied to the multi-level HTM networks as well. The influences of the parameters transitionMemory and requestedGroupCount on the HTM network performance have been explored. Altogether, we have investigated 2736 different HTM network configurations. The obtained classification accuracy results have been benchmarked with the published results of several conventional classifiers.
Body distribution of 11C-methionine and 18FDG in rat measured by microPET
Compounds 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18FDG) and 11C-methionine (11C-MET) are radiodiagnostics frequently used in clinical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) as well in preclinical studies of various pathologies. The present study was focused on the comparison of biodistribution of both radiotracers in intact Wistar rats. The animals were scanned by microPET twice. The first scanning was done after 11C-MET administration, the second scan followed 5-7 days later using 18FDG. The radiotracers were injected into the tail vein of animals in isoflurane anesthesia. After a redistribution period, whole body scans were obtained using eXplore Vista SrT GE tomograph. Accumulation of the drugs in tissues was expressed in relative values (% ID/g) in selected regions of interest. As arbitrary reference tissue for drug accumulation, the sternoclavicular area was used. 18C-MET was found remarkably cumulating especially in the liver, spleen and distal part of the gastrointestinal tract. The compound was accumulated in the liver 6.9 ± 0.92 (mean ± SEM) times more intensively than in the reference tissue. The respective value for spleen and cecum/colon was 5.62 ± 0.81 and 3.56 ± 0.14 times. Accumulation of 11C-MET in other body parts including the brain and heart was very low and was apparently equal to the arbitrary tissue (0.13 ± 0.01% ID/g). In the same animals 18FDG (biontFDG) was remarkably cumulated especially in Harderian glands compared to arbitrary tissue background (11.02 ± 1.00 times), heart (7.52 ± 1.70 times), brain (6.14 ± 0.37 times), and colon (5.68 ± 0.31 times). 18FDG accumulation in the liver, spleen and other organs was apparently not different from that found in the background (0.14 ± 0.02% ID/g). The data obtained may serve as reference values in further microPET preclinical studies with 11C-MET and 18FDG under the given conditions.
The new pyridoindole antioxidant SMe1EC2 and its intervention in hypoxia/hypoglycemia-induced impairment of long-term potentiation in rat hippocampus
Previously, the pyridoindole SMe1EC2 was proved to inhibit lipoperoxidation and carbonylation of proteins in rat brain cortex in the system Fe2+/ascorbate and improvement of resistance of the rat hippocampus was reported against ischemic conditions in vitro (hypoxia/hypoglycemia) expressed by the enhanced neuronal response recovery in reoxygenation. The hippocampus fulfils many of the criteria for a neuronal correlate of learning and memory. Recently, an impairment of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) was reported under oxidative stress. Different therapies, including antioxidants, have been studied intensively concerning the impairment of neuronal plasticity. In this study marked reduction of LTP, elicited by a single burst (100 Hz, 1s) in the CA3-CA1 area of rat hippocampal slices, was shown due to transient hypoxia/hypoglycemia compared to control slices. On the basis of previously reported antioxidant and neuroprotective effects of SMe1EC2, its effect on loss of LTP in the hippocampus due to ischemic conditions was studied in vitro. The pyridoindole tested improved hypoxia/hypoglycemia-induced reduction of LTP compared to untreated hypoxic slices. An opposite effect of SMe1EC2 on LTP induction was found in control slices. The mechanism of SMe1EC2 action on LTP in ischemic conditions has been suggested to differ from the mechanism of its effect in "normoxia" and may be due to different redox status in control and ischemic brain tissue. The manifested LTP-protective effect of SMe1EC2 observed in the rat hippocampus exposed to ischemia in vitro may find exploitation in therapy associated with injured neuronal plasticity in some conditions, including ischemia, trauma and aging in man.
Oxidative stress induced by the Fe2+/ascorbic acid system or model ischemia in vitro: effect of carvedilol and pyridoindole antioxidant SMe1EC2 in young and adult rat brain tissue
New effective strategies and new highly effective neuroprotective agents are being searched for the therapy of human stroke and cerebral ischemia. The compound SMe1EC2 is a new derivative of stobadine, with enhanced antioxidant properties compared to the maternal drug. Carvedilol, a non-selective beta-blocker, possesses besides its cardioprotective and vasculoprotective properties also an antioxidant effect. We compared the effect of carvedilol and SMe1EC2, antioxidants with a similar chemical structure, in two experimental models of oxidative stress in young and adult rat brain tissue. SMe1EC2 was found to improve the resistance of hippocampal neurons to ischemia in vitro in young and even in 18-month-old rats and inhibited formation of protein carbonyl groups induced by the Fe2+/ascorbic acid pro-oxidative system in brain cortex homogenates of young rats. Carvedilol exerted a protective effect only in the hippocampus of 2-month-old rats and that at the concentration 10-times higher than did SMe1EC2. The inhibitory effect of carvedilol on protein carbonyl formation induced by the pro-oxidative system was not proved in the cortex of either young or adult rats. An increased baseline level of the content of protein carbonyl groups in the adult versus young rat brain cortex confirmed age-related changes in neuronal tissue and may be due to increased production of reactive oxygen species and low antioxidant defense mechanisms in the adult rat brain. The results revealed the new pyridoindole SMe1EC2 to be more effective than carvedilol in neuroprotection of rat brain tissue in both experimental models involving oxidative stress.