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  • Author: Sunil Kumar x
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The present paper deals with the study of a D-homothetic deformation of an extended generalized ϕ-recurrent (LCS)2n+1-manifolds their geometrical properties are discussed. Finally, we construct an example of an extended generalized ϕ-recurrent (LCS)3-manifolds that are neither ϕ-recurrent nor generalized ϕ-recurrent under such deformation is constructed.

Corporate Ownership and the Technical and Scale Efficiency of Pharmaceutical Firms in India - Empirical Evidence

In the existing literature, the theoretical models suggest that foreign-owned firms perform better than domestic firms and that private sector firms perform better than public sector firms. The present study is a modest attempt in this regard to empirically test and compare the differences in the technical and scale efficiencies of 36 public limited companies, private sector firms and foreign firms belonging to the pharmaceutical industry of India using the DEA model. The analysis shows that overall technical efficiency was different in the case of private domestic and public sector firms in the year 1990, i.e., the pre-reform period. The difference was also significant in the case of private foreign and public sector firms, though it was not significant in the case of private domestic and private foreign firms in the pre-reform period. However, in the subsequent post-reform years, there were no significant differences.

Salt effect on the enthalpy of mixing of 2-propanol + acetic acid at 303.15 K

This paper presents the effect of two dissolved inorganic salts (zinc chloride, ZnCl2 and ammonium chloride, NH4Cl) on the enthalpy of mixing (H E) of 2-propanol + acetic acid binary system measured at 303.15 K using an isothermal displacement calorimeter with vapour space. A decreasing trend in the excess enthalpy of mixing values in the presence of ZnCl2 and NH4Cl indicate the endothermic behavior of this system. The Redlich-Kister equation has been used to fit the experimental H E data. The deviations from the ideal value and binary parameters were calculated and reported.

Antioxidant and free radical scavenging potential of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. methanolic fruit extract

Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae) is a medicinal plant traditionally used as an abortifacient and to treat constipation, oedema, bacterial infections, cancer and diabetes. Preliminary phytochemical screening of the plant showed the presence of large amounts of phenolics and flavonoids. Subsequent quantification showed the presence of 0.74% (m/m) phenolics (calculated as gallic acid) and 0.13% (m/m) flavonoids calculated as catechin equivalents per 100 g of fresh mass. The presence of phenolic compounds prompted us to evaluate its antioxidant activity. In the present study, methanolic fruit extract of C. colocynthis was screened to evaluate its freeradical scavenging effect. The highest antioxidant and free radical scavenging ability of the fruit extract was observed at a concentration of 2500 μg mL-1.


Nothapodytes nimmoniana (J. Graham) (Icacinaceae), commonly known as Amruta is found in India particularly in Maharashtra, Goa, Kerala, Assam, Jammu and Kashmir as well as Tamilnadu areas. It is an important medicinal plant, the major source of a potent alkaloid, namely camptothecin, of a wide spectrum of pharmacological activities like anti-cancer, anti-HIV, antimalarial, antibacterial, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-fungal and also applied in the treatment of anaemia. Camptothecin is still not synthesized, therefore, its production entirely depends on natural sources. N. nimmoniana is one such plant which yields contain camptothecin in significantly high amount. The plant is gaining international recognition due to its diversified medicinal uses. It is subjected to excessive harvest. It has been categorized as a vulnerable and endangered plant. The present review encompasses the phytochemical, analytical, pharmacological, biotechnological, and other specific aspects of N. nimmoniana.


In the present paper we define some classes of double lacunary sequence spaces over n-normed spaces by means of a Musielak- Orlicz function. We study some relevant algebraic and topological properties. Further some inclusion relation among the classes are also examined.


BACKGROUND. Sinonasal polyposis represents a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by nasal obstruction, reduction in the sense of smell and impaired quality of life. Intranasal steroids play an important role in preventing the postoperative recurrences in these cases. We carried out a study to evaluate and compare intra nasal budesonide and intranasal fluticasone propionate in the postoperative management of ethmoidal nasal polyposis.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. 106 patients with ethmoidal polyposis were treated with endoscopic polypectomy and were postoperatively started and maintained on intranasal steroids. 54 patients were managed with budesonide and 52 patients maintained on fluticasone propionate nasal spray. The patients were followed-up for 6 months and recurrences and control of symptoms evaluated.

RESULTS. There was a statistical difference in the SNOT-22 (p<0.0001) and Lund-Kennedy scores (p=0.015) between patients using fluticasone propionate as compared to those using budesonide intra nasal spray by the end of the 6th month.

CONCLUSION. Both intranasal budesonide and fluticasone propionate are effective in controlling symptoms after endoscopic sinus surgery in patients with sinonasal polyposis; however, intranasal fluticasone propionate was more efficacious than budesonide in the control of postoperative symptoms.


In the modern world of automation, biological signals, especially Electroencephalogram (EEG) and Electrocardiogram (ECG), are gaining wide attention as a source of biometric information. Earlier studies have shown that EEG and ECG show versatility with individuals and every individual has distinct EEG and ECG spectrum. EEG (which can be recorded from the scalp due to the effect of millions of neurons) may contain noise signals such as eye blink, eye movement, muscular movement, line noise, etc. Similarly, ECG may contain artifact like line noise, tremor artifacts, baseline wandering, etc. These noise signals are required to be separated from the EEG and ECG signals to obtain the accurate results. This paper proposes a technique for the removal of eye blink artifact from EEG and ECG signal using fixed point or FastICA algorithm of Independent Component Analysis (ICA). For validation, FastICA algorithm has been applied to synthetic signal prepared by adding random noise to the Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. FastICA algorithm separates the signal into two independent components, i.e. ECG pure and artifact signal. Similarly, the same algorithm has been applied to remove the artifacts (Electrooculogram or eye blink) from the EEG signal.

Protective efficacy of 2-PAMCl, atropine and curcumin against dichlorvos induced toxicity in rats

The effect of 2- pyridine aldoxime methyl chloride (2-PAMCl) and atropine with or without curcumin was investigated in dichlorvos (2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate; DDVP) induced toxicity in rats. Rats were exposed to DDVP (2 mg/kg sub-cutaneously) once daily for the period of 21 days. Post DDVP exposure, rats were further treated with 2-PAMCl (50 mg/kg intramuscular, once daily) + atropine (10 mg/kg, i.m. once daily) with or without curcumin (200 mg/kg; oral; once daily) for further 21 days. We observed a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), while there was a significant decrease in antioxidant enzymes, brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and 5-hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT) activity on DDVP exposure of rats. These alterations were restored significantly by co-administration of 2-PAMCl + atropine in DDVP exposed rats. Curcumin when co-supplemented with 2-PAMCl + atropine also significantly protected serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and restored brain AChE activity and 5-HT level in animals sub-chronically exposed to DDVP. Histopathological observations along with biochemical changes in rat blood and tissues revealed significant protection offered by 2-PAMCl + atropine against DDVP. The results indicate that DDVP-induced toxicity can be significantly protected by co-administration of 2-PAMCl + atropine individually, however, curcumin co-supplementation with 2-PAMCl + atropine provides more pronounced protection, concerning particularly neurological disorders.


Land use Land cover have significance in relation to Land, the most vital and fundamental resource pertaining to the urban development. Unprecedented urban growth has a noteworthy impact on natural landscape by converting natural land-cover in Haryana. Hisar, an area recognized for rapid urban growth is less explored in terms of research. The present research has shown a significant change in land use in terms of expansion of built-up area from 3.7 % (1991) to 5.0 % (2001) and 6.2 % (2011) by encroaching into agricultural land. Despite the clear difference between average land surface temperature for built up and non-built up area, grazing land and sandy waste, bare land in the rural surrounding possess higher temperature compared to the city core which contradicts the reported impact of urbanization earlier. Such contrary pertains to sparse vegetation cover leading to reduced evaporative cooling during dry pre-monsoon summer in the rural surrounding. On the other side, green parks and plantation in the city contribute to lower mean temperature because of high rates of evapotranspiration and produce ‘oasis effect’ in the present study area located in semi-arid climatic zone. Regression analysis between temperature and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Normalized Difference Built-up Index exhibited a strong negative and positive correlation respectively (Pearson’s r: between -0.79 to -0.87 and between 0.79 to 0.84 respectively). Future land use prediction project an increase (1.3 %) in built-up area from 2011 to 2021. This study recommends urban plantation and prohibition to overgrazing to check the heat effect.