. Natural and human causes of land use transformation were analysed in the Sikkimese-Bhutanese Himalayan piedmont over last 150 years with special emphasize on period 1930-2010. A hydrologic and geomorphic approach was employed to delineate three study areas along river courses on alluvial fans stretching 10 km from the mountain front. The visual interpretation of topographic maps and satellite images combined with logical rules in GIS were used for determination of stable and dynamic areas from the viewpoint of land use changes. Analysis indicates rapid replacement of natural forest through location of tea plantations, crop cultivation and development of settlement in the late 19th century. The shift from natural to human dominated landscape caused increase land use stability through enlargement of areas with monoculture cultivation of tea and paddy between 1930 and 2010. The natural fluvial activity intensified by human induced deforestation of Himalayan margin and clearance of riparian vegetation along foothill channels became the most important factors of present-day land use changes of piedmont.
The article presents the role of the newly built reservoir in the formation of the hydrochemistry of water of the Teesta River (a tributary of the Brahmaputra) in its Himalayan course. Field research were performed in the post-monsoon season of the period 2013-2015. Sampling and measuring points were located in five points over 43 km of the Teesta River in the Darjeeling Himalaya. Analysis of water along of river longitudinal profile above and below the reservoir suggest that the reservoir caused decrease most of the basic ions concentrations (Cl−, K+, Na+, Mg2+, NO3− and PO43−). An inverse trend was observed only with respect to Ca2+, SO42− and NH4+. The dam does not influent on the F− concentration. The reservoir causes minor enrichment most of the heavy metals such Cu, Ni, Zn, Cr, Cd and Sr. The lower enrichment of Teesta water below the dam indicates the water self-purification processes for metals by the Teesta Reservoir. The changes of physicochemical properties and concentrations of ions caused by the reservoir are usually normalised by environmental factors before the Teesta River outlet from the Himalayas (within 15 km of the river).
Numerous soft-sediment deformation structures occur within the Proterozoic Bhander Limestone of an intracratonic sag basin in a 750 m long section along the Thomas River, near Maihar, central India. Part of these deformation structures have most probably a non-seismic origin, but other structures are interpreted as resulting from earthquake-induced shocks. These seismic structures are concentrated in a 60 cm thick interval, which is interpreted as three stacked seismi-tes. These three seismites are traceable over the entire length of the section. They divide the sedimentary succession in a lower part (including the seismites) deposited in a hypersaline lagoon, and an upper open-marine (shelf) part. Most of the soft-sediment deformations outside the seismite interval occur in a lagoonal intraclastic and muddy facies association.
The SSDS within the seismite interval show a lateral continuity. They record simultaneous fluidisation and liquefaction. The bases of each of the three composing seismite bands are defined by small-scale shear folds, probably recording an earthquake and aftershocks.
The presence of the three seismite bands at the boundary between the lagoonal and the overlying open-marine oolitic facies association suggests that the seismic event also triggered basin subsidence.