The article examines: (i) the reasons of error due to thermoelectric inhomogeneity of electrodes of thermocouples acquired during prolonged use; (ii) the neural network method of error correction based on a generalization of verification results in several temperature fields; (iii) the method of investigating the impact of changing the speed of the conversion characteristic drift of thermocouple on error correction; (iv) results of this investigation. It is shown that residual error for type K thermocouples at the 5 % level of significance does not exceed μ±0.46 oС and one at the 10 % level of significance does not exceed ±0.25 °С
The simplified metrological software test (MST) for modeling the method of determining the thermocouple (TC) error in situ during operation is considered in the paper. The interaction between the proposed MST and a temperature measuring system is also reflected in order to study the error of determining the TC error in situ during operation. The modelling studies of the random error influence of the temperature measuring system, as well as interference magnitude (both the common and normal mode noises) on the error of determining the TC error in situ during operation using the proposed MST, have been carried out. The noise and interference of the order of 5-6 μV cause the error of about 0.2-0.3°C. It is shown that high noise immunity is essential for accurate temperature measurements using TCs.
Objective: To investigate differences in clinical features between tobacco smoke-induced and biomass fuel-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 206 patients with COPD caused by exposure to tobacco smoke and 81 cases of COPD caused by exposure to biomass fuels who received treatment in our hospital between 2011 March and 2014 March. Difference in general health status, clinical symptoms, the dyspnea score, and comorbidities between the two groups were compared. In addition, pulmonary function, grading, and acute exacerbations were also compared.
Results: (1) Difference in general health status: Male and female patients with COPD caused by exposure to tobacco smoke were 83.5 and 16.5%, respectively. Male and female patients with COPD caused by exposure to smoke from biomass fuels were 14.8 and 85.2% (χ2 = 27.2, P < 0.05), respectively. Tobacco smoke-induced COPD was more prevalent in men, and COPD caused by exposure to smoke from biomass fuels was more prevalent in women. After gender adjustment, body mass index (BMI) was lower in women with COPD caused by exposure to smoke from biomass fuels than those by tobacco smoke. There was no statistically significant difference in other indicators, such as age. (2): Difference in clinical symptoms: No statistically significant difference in the modified British Medical Research Counsel (mMRC) Questionnaire, a measure of breathlessness, was observed between the two groups. Dyspnea was more common in COPD patients that was caused by exposure to biomass fuels (38.3%) than by tobacco smoke (11.1%) (χ2 = 17.9, P < 0.05). The comorbidities of allergic diseases (such as allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma) were more prevalent in COPD patients that was caused by exposure to smoke from biomass fuels (43.2%) than by tobacco smoke (18%) (χ2= 16.1, P < 0.05). However, COPD comorbid with lung cancer was more prevalent in those cases that were caused by exposure to tobacco smoke (7.77%) than in cases caused by exposure to smoke from biomass fuels (3.7%) (χ2 = 9.7, P < 0.05). (3) Differences in grading of pulmonary function: After gender adjustment, patients with COPD caused by exposure to biomass fuels were mostly in grade B or D. (4) Exacerbations: No significant difference in exacerbations per year was noted between the two groups.
Conclusions: Marked differences exist between patients with COPD caused by exposure to tobacco smoke and smoke from biomass fuels. Patients with COPD caused by exposure to biofuels are mostly females with lower BMI and often with many clinical symptoms and complications, such as allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma. Such patients are often in stage B or D. Tobacco smoke-induced COPD is more prevalent in male patients, often with complications in the form of lung cancer.
The method of study and experimental researches of the error of method of the thermocouple with controlled profile of temperature field along the main thermocouple are considered in this paper. Experimentally determined values of error of method are compared to the theoretical estimations done using Newton’s law of cooling. They converge well.
Error due to inhomogeneity is the main problem of thermocouples (TCs), e.g., during the operation of a type K TC, this error can reach 11-30 °C. Thus, metrological reliability of TCs is threatened by this error because there is a high risk of exceeding the permissible error when the temperature distribution along the TC legs changes. Such a large error, in turn, can threaten a proper operation or even safety of a measured object. A TC with controlled temperature field was proposed to cope with this error. An information-measuring system to perform proper measurements, measurement data acquisition and collection to construct mathematical models is proposed. Its property is high diurnal stability of ±(0.0025+0,002(X/XMAX–1) %. The requirements for the information-measuring system and its structure are considered in this paper. In particular, one of the key problems of such a sensor is how stable is its own temperature field under the influence of the temperature field of a measured object. The experimental studies were carried out using the developed system. They showed that the coefficient of penetration of the temperature field of the measured object is about 0.04. This allows decreasing error due to inhomogeneity by about 10-20 times.
The toxic metal lead is a widespread environmental polutant that can adversely affect human health. However, the underlying mechanisms of lead-induced toxicity are still largely unknown. The mechanism of lead toxicity was presumed to involve cross reaction between Pb2+ and Ca2+ with calmodulin dependent systems. The aim of the present study was thus to identify differential expression of calmodulin-related genes in the spleen of lead-exposed mice. We performed microarray analysis to identify differentially expressed genes. RNAs from spleen tissue of lead exposed animals (n=6) and controls (n=6) were converted to labeled cRNA and hybridized to Illumina mouse WG-6_v2_Bead Chip. Expression profiles were analyzed using Illumina BeadStudio Application. Real-time RT-PCR was conducted to validate the microarray data. By microarray analysis 5 calmodulin-related genes (MAP2K6, CAMKK2, CXCR4, PHKA2, MYLK) were found to be differently expressed in lead exposed compared with control mice (p<0.05). The results of Real-time RT-PCR showed that MAP2K6 and CAMKK2 were up-regulated and CXCR4 was down-regulated in lead exposure, but there were no significant differences in PHKA2 and MYLK expression between the lead exposed and control group. These results show that lead exposure produced significant changes in expression of a variety of genes in the spleen and can affect calmodulin-related gene expression.
Conditions for the P-intersection and P-intersection of falsity-external (resp. indeterminacy-external and truth-external) neutrosophic cubic sets to be an falsity-external (resp. indeterminacy-external and truth-external) neutrosophic cubic set are provided. Conditions for the P-union and the P-intersection of two truth-external (resp. indeterminacy-external and falsity-external) neutrosophic cubic sets to be a truth-internal (resp. indeterminacy-internal and falsity-internal) neutrosophic cubic set are discussed.
Background. An objective method for determining the location of the cancer with respect to peritoneal reflection would be helpful to decide the treatment modality for rectal cancer. This study was designed to evaluate the accuracy and usefulness of rectal MRI to determine spatial relations between the peritoneal reflection and rectal cancer and to compare these with operative findings.
Patients and methods. Patients that underwent a rectal cancer operation after a rectal MRI check between November 2008 and June 2010 were considered for the study. The patients that received preoperative concurrent chemoradiation or trans-anal local excision were excluded.
Results. Fifty-four patients constituted the study cohort. By comparing surgical and radiologic findings, the accuracy for predicting tumour location in relation to the peritoneal reflection by rectal MRI in all patients was 90.7%. In terms of tumour location in relation to peritoneal reflection, the accuracy of rectal MRI was 93.5% in patients with a tumour located above the peritoneal reflection, 90.0% in patients with a tumour located on the peritoneal reflection, and 84.6% in patients with a tumour located below the peritoneal reflection (p=0.061). When the cohort was subdivided by gender, body mass index (BMI), operative findings, or tumour size, no significant difference was observed among subgroups.
Conclusions. Rectal MRI could be a useful tool for evaluating the relation between rectal cancer and peritoneal reflection especially when tumour size is less than 8cm. Rectal MRI can provide information regarding the location of rectal cancer in relation to the peritoneal reflection for treatment planning purposes.
It has been suggested that the standardized growth curve (SGC) method can be used to accurately determinate equivalent dose (De) and reduce measurement time. However, different opinions regarding the applicability of the SGC method exist. In this paper, we evaluated quartz OSL SGCs of marine and coastal sediments of different grain sizes and different cores in the south Bohai Sea in China, and tested their applicability to the determination of De values. Our results suggested as follows: (1) The SGC method is applicable to both multiple- and single-aliquot regenerative-dose (MAR and SAR) protocols of OSL dating and efficiently provides reliable estimates of De. (2) Finesand quartz of different palaeodoses showed highly similar dose-response curves and an SGC was developed, but old samples using the SGC method have large uncertainties. (3) For coarse-silt quartz, two different types of dose-response curves were recorded: low-dose (≤60Gy) and high-dose (≥100Gy). The growth curves of low-dose quartz were similar to each other, facilitating the use of SGC in De estimations, but errors tended to be larger than those obtained in the SAR method. For high-dose (100–300Gy) quartz, the SGC was also found to be reliable, but there was large uncertainty in De (>300Gy) estimation. We suggest that SGC could be employed for the dating of marine and coastal sediments dating using either MAR or SAR OSL protocol and either fine-silt, coarse-silt or fine-sand quartz.
Introduction: Peroxiredoxin 6 (Prdx6) is a bifunctional protein with glutathione peroxidase activity and phospholipase A2 activity. Previous studies have shown a significant positive correlation between the intracellular survival ability of Brucella and Prdx6. Here, the Prdx6 enzyme with a single activity was constructed to facilitate study of the relationship between the single function of Prdx6 and Brucella infection.
Material and Methods: The target open reading frame (ORF) DNAs of Prdx6 with a single active centre were prepared using gene splicing by overlap extension PCR (SOE-PCR), and the recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmids inserted by Prdx6 with the single activity centre were constructed and transfected into murine Raw264.7 macrophages. The glutathione peroxidase activity and phospholipase A2 activity of the constructed Prdx6 were examined.
Results: The core centres (Ser32 and Cys47) of Prdx6 were successfully mutated by changing the 94th nucleotide from T to G and the 140th nucleotide from G to C in the two enzyme activity cores, respectively. The constructed recombinant plasmids of Prdx6 with the single active centre were transfected into murine macrophages showing the expected single functional enzyme activity, which MJ33 or mercaptosuccinate inhibitors were able to inhibit.
Conclusion: The constructed mutants of Prdx6 with the single activity cores will be a benefit to further study of the biological function of Prdx6 with different enzyme activity.