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Open access

Lea Vuletic, Marija Klaic, Stjepan Spalj and Kristina Peros


Background and Aims: Gum chewing after a meal stimulates salivation and may affect the motility of the gastrointestinal tract and the release of hormones through neural mechanisms. This study was conducted to assess if chewing a sugar-free gum for 20 min following a meal, as recommended for dental caries prevention, influences the postprandial blood glucose levels in a period of one hour. Materials and Methods: For each of 18 participants blood glucose profile was made by measuring capillary glucose concentration in 10-min intervals within one hour following: a) chewing a sugar-free gum, b) the consumption of an oatmeal, c) chewing a sugar-free gum after the consumption of an oatmeal. Results: No statistically significant differences were found in the glycaemic response following complex carbohydrate ingestion when a gum was chewed after a meal. Conclusions: The possible influence of gum chewing on the postprandial gastrointestinal and metabolic ongoings was not reflected in the postprandial glycaemic response under the conditions of this study. A more comprehensive study which would include more variables related to vagal efferent activity, digestion and metabolism would be needed to assess if chewing sugar-free gums to exploit their caries-protective potential can influence metabolic adaptability to nutritional challenges.

Open access

Renata Vidaković, Stjepan Špalj, Mladen Šlaj, Martina Šlaj and Višnja Katić



The aims were: evaluation of the correlation between the Dental Aesthetic Index (DAI) and Index of Complexity, Outcome and Need (ICON); the assessment of orthodontic treatment need for schoolchildren in a population with two indices, separately for schoolchildren with mixed and permanent dentition; the estimation of the population share that could not receive orthodontic treatment because of the presence of caries and/or gingivitis.


A total of 2652 Zagreb school children (7 - 19 years old, 52.4% of them were females) completed a questionnaire regarding previous orthodontic treatment and the type of appliance used. Their oral cavity was also inspected. The DAI and ICON indices were used for the assessment of malocclusion prevalence.


The subjects with mixed dentition had a greater need for orthodontic treatment, when compared to subjects with permanent dentition, when using the DAI index (p<0.001). When using the ICON index, 11.7% of subjects with mixed dentition had very severe malocclusion, as opposed to 5.8% of subjects with permanent dentition. The DAI and ICON scores correlated positively linearly (r=0.521; p<0.001). A higher prevalence of both gingivitis and caries was recorded more often in boys; caries more often in the group with the mixed dentition, and gingivitis in the group with permanent dentition (p<0.05).


The DAI and ICON indices have moderate agreement in assessment of malocclusion severity scores. One third of all schoolchildren with various degrees of both ICON and DAI indices have gingivitis, and half of them have caries.