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  • Author: Stefka V. Vladeva x
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Clinical Investigations: Correlations Between Human Somatotype Components And Some Anthropometric Parameters In Male Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus


The AIM of the present study was to find and compare the correlations between somatotype and some anthropological parameters in Bulgarian male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Anthropometric measurements were taken from 165 male patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. All patients were ethnic Bulgarians. They were divided into two age groups: a 40-60-year group (58 patients, mean age 52.05 ± 0.73 yrs), and a 61-80-year group (111 patients, mean age 68.02 ± 0.53 yrs). The controls were allocated into similar agematched groups. Direct anthropometric measurements were body height and weight, biepicondylar breadth of the humerus and biepicondylar breadth of the femur. Circumferential measurements were taken from the relaxed and contracted upper arm, the forearm, the waist, the hip, the thigh and the medial calf. Skin folds were measured below the inferior angle of the scapula, above the X rib, above the crista iliaca, at the abdomen, triceps brachii, forearm, thigh and the medial calf. The components of human somatotype according to the criteria of Heath-Carter, body mass index (ВМІ) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. RESULTS: We found very strong positive correlations (РС > 0.70) between ВМI and the endomorphic and mesomorphic components of somatotype in 40-60-year-old male diabetic patients. The correlation between the endomorphic and mesomorphic components of somatotype and the anthropometric measurements characterizing the central accumulation of adipose tissue (waist circumference, hip circumference, WHR) was very strong positive (РС = 0.5-0.7). Male diabetic patients aged 61-80 years: we found a very strong positive correlation between endomorphic and mesomorphic components and ВМІ, a strong correlation between these components and the waist circumference, and a good correlation between the components and the circumferences of the waist and hip and WHR.

CONCLUSIONS: In male patients with type 2 diabetes aged 40-60 years, the endomorphic and mesomorphic components of somatotype are strongly positively correlated with the parameters which characterize the total adipose tissue accumulation in the human body (ВМІ). There is a good positive correlation between the two components of somatotype and the parameters showing visceral adipose tissue accumulation (circumferences of waist, hip, thigh and WHR). In male patients with type 2 diabetes aged 61-80 years we found a strong positive correlation of the endomorphic and mesomorphic components of somatotype with BMI and a good positive correlation with the circumferences of the waist, hip, thigh and WHR.

Open access
Anthropological Characteristic of the Distribution of Adipose Tissue in Bulgarian Females with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus


Background: The complex study of adipose tissue in women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is of importance for the clinical course and prognosis of the disease.

Aim: To study the distribution of adipose tissue in Bulgarian females with T2DM.

Patients and methods: The study included 92 women with T2DM (age range 40-60 years). The control group consisted of 40 age-matched women. Measurement parameters: height, weight, 9 skinfolds (sf) – sfTriceps, sfBiceps brachii, sfForearm, sfSubscapular, sfXrib, sfAbdomen, sfSuprailiaca, sfThigh, and sfCalf; bioelectrical impedance analysis - % body fat tissue and visceral fat tissue. Calculated indexes: body mass index (BMI), the ratio sfTrunk to sfLimbs, the ratio skin folds upper half of body/skin folds lower half of body, fat mass and subcutaneous fat mass.

Results: Statistically significant differences were found in the means of sfTriceps, sfXrib, sfThigh, sfCalf, % body fat tissue, visceral fat tissue, and fat mass and subcutaneous fat mass between the diabetic and healthy women. The body composition of diabetic females aged 40-60 years contained a larger adipose component than controls. Visceral adipose tissue which determines the body composition is a reliable indicator of the health risks in diabetic women.

Conclusion: The pattern of subcutaneous adipose tissue distribution in diabetic females aged 40-60 yrs was primarily in the upper torso region and less so in the limbs. In the controls adipose tissue is accumulated primarily in the limbs and in the lower part of the body.

Open access
Community Noise Exposure and its Effect on Blood Pressure and Renal Function in Patients with Hypertension and Cardiovascular Disease


Background: Road traffic noise (RTN) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and hypertension; however, few studies have looked into its association with blood pressure (BP) and renal function in patients with prior CVD.

Aim: This study aimed to explore the effect of residential RTN exposure on BP and renal function in patients with CVD from Plovdiv Province.

Materials and methods: We included 217 patients with ischemic heart disease and/or hypertension from three tertiary hospitals in the city of Plovdiv (March – May 2016). Patients’ medical history, medical documentation, and medication regimen were reviewed, and blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were taken. Blood samples were analyzed for creatinine, total cholesterol, and blood glucose. Participants also filled a questionnaire. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. All participants were asked about their annoyance by different noise sources at home, and those living in the city of Plovdiv (n = 132) were assigned noise map Lden and Lnight exposure. The effects of noise exposure on systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were explored using mixed linear models.

Results: Traffic noise annoyance was associated with higher SBP in the total sample. The other noise indicators were associated with non-significant elevation in SBP and reduction in eGFR. The effect of Lden was more pronounced in patients with prior ischemic heart disease/stroke, diabetes, obesity, not taking Ca-channel blockers, and using solid fuel/gas at home. Lnight had stronger effect among those not taking statins, sleeping in a bedroom with noisy façade, having a living room with quiet façade, and spending more time at home. The increase in Lden was associated with a significant decrease in eGFR among men, patients with ischemic heart disease/stroke, and those exposed to lower air pollution. Regarding Lnight, there was significant effect modification by gender, diabetes, obesity, and time spent at home. In some subgroups, the effect of RTN was statistically significant.

Conclusions: Given that generic risk factors for poor progression of cardiovascular diseases cannot be controlled sufficiently at individual level, environmental interventions to reduce residential noise exposure might result in some improvement in the management of blood pressure and kidney function in patients with CVD.

Open access