Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 10 items for

  • Author: Stefano Paolacci x
Clear All Modify Search
Open access

Yeltay Rakhmanov, Paolo Enrico Maltese, Stefano Paolacci, Alice Bruson and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

Emberger Syndrome (ES) is a very rare genetic disorder associated with primary lymphedema, myelodysplasia and immunodeficiency. The syndrome has autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance. Sporadic cases caused by de novo germinal mutations in the GATA2 gene have also been described. We developed the test protocol on the basis of the latest research findings and diagnostic protocols on lymphatic malformation in ES. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Yeltay Rakhmanov, Paolo Enrico Maltese, Stefano Paolacci, Francesca Fanelli, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

Atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) is a congenital heart defect characterized by a shared atrioventricular junction coexisting with deficient atrioventricular septation. The main morphological characteristic of AVSD is a common atrioventricular canal. The prevalence of AVSD is estimated at 0.31/1000 live births and is higher among subjects with PTPN11 mutations. ASD may have autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive inheritance. This Utility Gene Test was prepared on the basis of an analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. It is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Yeltay Rakhmanov, Paolo Enrico Maltese, Stefano Paolacci, Carla Marinelli and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for lymphedema distichiasis (LD) syndrome. LD is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, and has unknown prevalence. It is caused by variations in the FOXC2 gene. Clinical diagnosis involves clinical examination, targeted at identifying primary lymphedema (chronic swelling of the extremities) and distichiasis (double row of eyelashes). The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Stefano Paolacci, Yeltay Rakhmanov, Paolo Enrico Maltese and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

Cardiovascular disorders include various conditions characterized by morphological and functional defects of the heart and vascular system. Molecular biology techniques (in particular DNA sequencing) have recently offered new insights into the etiology of cardiovascular defects, revealing their association with germline as well as somatic mutations.

Genetic tests are evaluated on the basis of their analytical and clinical validity, clinical utility, and ethical, legal and social implications. Next generation sequencing is so far the best approach for molecular diagnosis of congenital heart defects and vascular anomalies, the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of which makes them difficult to diagnose. Understanding the molecular causes of congenital heart defects and vascular anomalies has permitted clinical trials of drugs targeting affected genes and pathways.

The articles in this Special Issue aim to provide guidance for those concerned with diagnosis and research in the field of cardiovascular defects. The approach to genetic testing is discussed.

Open access

Stefano Paolacci, Yeltay Rakhmanov, Paolo Enrico Maltese, Alice Bruson and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

Variants affecting the function of genes in the RAS–mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway have been identified as responsible for a group of developmental syndromes known as RASopathies. Noonan (NS) and cardiofaciocutaneous syndromes (CFC) represent the most frequent and best characterized RASopathies. Many cases of RASopathies are associated with lymphatic malformations that finally may result in lymphedema. We developed the test protocol “Lymphedema in RASopathies” on the basis of the latest research findings and diagnostic protocols on lymphatic malformation in RASopathies. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Stefano Paolacci, Yeltay Rakhmanov, Paolo Enrico Maltese, Francesca Fanelli, Raul Ettore Mattassi, Bruno Amato and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

Vascular anomalies (VAs) have phenotypic variability within the same entity, overlapping clinical features between different conditions, allelic and locus heterogeneity and the same disorder can be inherited in different ways. Most VAs are sporadic (paradominant inheritance or de novo somatic or germline mutations), but hereditary forms (autosomal dominant or recessive) have been described. This Utility Gene Test was developed on the basis of an analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Yeltay Rakhmanov, Paolo Enrico Maltese, Alessandra Zulian, Stefano Paolacci, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

Aortic valve stenosis (AVS) is a congenital aortic defect in which the aortic lumen narrows due to thickening or calcification of the aortic valve without obstructing left ventricular outflow. Depending on the site of obstruction, AVS is classified as valvular, sub-valvular or supra-valvular. The prevalence of AVS is about 3% and increases with age. One in eight persons over the age of 75 years has moderate or severe AVS. AVS has autosomal dominant inheritance. It can be associated with mutations in the following genes: NOTCH1, SMAD6, SMAD4, and ELN. This Utility Gene Test was developed on the basis of the analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. It is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials, when available.

Open access

Stefano Paolacci, Yeltay Rakhmanov, Paolo Enrico Maltese, Alessandra Zulian, Sandro Michelini and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

Lymphatic malformations (LMs) show phenotypic variability, as well as clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Inheritance is autosomal dominant, recessive or X-linked and major genes involved in predisposition for LMs are continuously being discovered. The literature also indicates that somatic mutations play an important role in the development of LMs. In fact, activating somatic mutations in PIK3CA have been reported in lymphatic endothelial cells obtained from patients with different kinds of LM. This Utility Gene Test was developed on the basis of an analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. It is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Yeltay Rakhmanov, Paolo Enrico Maltese, Stefano Paolacci, Carla Marinelli, Marco Castori, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

Marfan-like disorders are inherited conditions with features resembling Marfan syndrome but without a pathogenic variant in FBN1, and/or without a clinical diagnosis of Marfan syndrome according to the Revised Ghent criteria, and/or with a pathogenic variant in a different disease gene. Marfan-like disorders are clinically and genetically heterogeneous and have variable prognosis. They may have autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive patterns of inheritance. The prevalence of most Marfan-like disorders is unknown. This Utility Gene Test was prepared on the basis of an analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. Molecular testing is useful for diagnosis confirmation, as well as differential diagnosis, appropriate genetic counselling and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Yeltay Rakhmanov, Paolo Enrico Maltese, Stefano Paolacci, Carla Marinelli, Raul Ettore Mattassi, Bruno Amato, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant vascular dysplasia characterized by telangiectases and arteriovenous malformations. These lesions cause bleeding, particularly in the nose, gastrointestinal tract and brain. HHT has incomplete penetrance, variable expressivity and genetic heterogeneity. De novo mutations associated with the onset of sporadic HHT have been reported. This Utility Gene Test was prepared on the basis of an analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. It is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.