Background. Functional endoscopic sinus surgery may be indicated when certain anatomic variations impede the normal drainage of the paranasal sinuses through the ostiomeatal complex. We aimed at studying the drainage system of the maxillary sinus which consists of the maxillary infundibulum, the main ostium of the maxillary sinus, the ethmoidal infundibulum and the hiatus semilunaris inferior.
Material and methods. The study was performed retrospectively on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) scans of 60 subjects (N=120 maxillary sinuses). The anatomical pattern of the maxillary sinus drainage was studied on coronal scans.
Results. As related to different morphological possibilities in the supero-lateral limit of the maxillary sinus drainage system, five different patterns were defined: in type I (55%) there was no pneumatization in that situs, in type II (18%) there was an infraorbital recess of the maxillary sinus placed above the sinus ostium, in type III (14%) an ethmoidal recess of the maxillary sinus was expanded within the ethmoid bone, above the ethmoidal infundibulum, in type IV (3%) there were Haller cells above the sinus ostium, while in type V (10%) there were non-infraorbital ethmoid air cells above and draining into the ethmoidal infundibulum.
Conclusion. It appears that CBCT is a reliable tool to make an anatomical distinction of the variable pattern of pneumatization impeding a normal drainage of the maxillary sinus, between maxillary sinus- and ethmoid-derived air-filled spaces.
Autophagy, a homeostatic process involved in nutrient regeneration and immune responses, may be involved in intracellular killing of M. tuberculosis. Several studies linked variation in autophagy genes with susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis, but others did not confirm these findings.
We genotyped single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ATG5 (rs2245214, c.574-12777G>C) and NOD2 (rs2066844, c.2104C>T) genes for 256 pulmonary tuberculosis patients and 330 unrelated healthy controls in Romania. Both SNPs have been reported as relevant for the autophagy process and potentially for susceptibility to active pulmonary tuberculosis.
In our study, the polymorphisms in ATG5 and NOD2 were not associated with tuberculosis. This suggests that the two genetic variants we focused on are not related to the risk for developing active TB in a Romanian population.
Introduction. Chronic pancreatitis is morphologically characterized by ductal dysplasia, breeding grounds for the proliferation of the ductal cells, the degenerative changes in pancreatic acinar cells and fibrosis, and it is defined on the basis of the clinical, morphological and functional criteria.
Aim. The aim of our study is to examine the existence of a possible correlation between the iNOS-2087A>G polymorphism and chronic pancreatitis by means of the genetic analysis.
Material and method. We have conducted the study at the Gastroenterology Clinic and the Research Center of Gastroenterology and Hepatology of the University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Craiova, between March 2015 – September 2016. The study had a prospective character. Both for the 58 patients diagnosed with chronic pancreatitis and for the 132 patients in the witness group, the biological material was represented by blood, (around 2.5 – 5 milliliters of venous blood) let on EDTA and kept at 4°C up to the separation of the DNA molecule. All the patients were genotyped for the iNOS – 2087A>G polymorphism, by means of the Real Time PCR technique with TaqMan probes.
Results. Analysing the prevalence of the iNOS genotypes within the study group and witness group, we have noticed that, statistically speaking, there are no significant differences between the two groups.
Conclusion. As a conclusion, in the study lot we can sustain that the risk of developing chronic pancreatitis is not increased by the presence of the iNOS-2087A>G polymorphism.