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Open access

Krystyna Zatoń and Stefan Szczepan

Abstract

The present research attempts to ascertain the impact of immediate verbal feedback (IVF) on modifications of stroke length (SL). In all swimming styles, stroke length is considered an essential kinematic parameter of the swimming cycle. It is important for swimming mechanics and energetics. If SL shortens while the stroke rate (SR) remains unchanged or decreases, the temporal-spatial structure of swimming is considered erroneous. It results in a lower swimming velocity. Our research included 64 subjects, who were divided into two groups: the experimental - E (n=32) and the control - C (n=32) groups. A pretest and a post-test were conducted. The subjects swam the front crawl over the test distance of 25m at Vmax. Only the E group subjects were provided with IVF aiming to increase their SL. All tests were filmed by two cameras (50 samples•s-1). The kinematic parameters of the swimming cycle were analyzed using the SIMI Reality Motion Systems 2D software (SIMI Reality Motion Systems 2D GmbH, Germany). The movement analysis allowed to determine the average horizontal swimming velocity over 15 meters. The repeated measures analysis of variance ANOVA with a post-hoc Tukey range test demonstrated statistically significant (p<0.05) differences between the two groups in terms of SL and swimming velocity. IVF brought about a 6.93% (Simi method) and a 5.09% (Hay method) increase in SL, as well as a 2.92% increase in swimming velocity.

Open access

Krystyna Zatoń and Stefan Szczepan

Abstract

The main objective of the study was to determine the impact of immediate verbal feedback on swimming effectiveness. Swimming effectiveness was expressed in the subjects reaching their objective, i.e., maximum swimming velocity. The study involved 64 subjects divided into two groups (experimental group n=32; control group n=32). Two measurements - initial (pre-test) and final (post-test) - were conducted. The subjects swam a distance of 25 m front crawl at maximum velocity. The experimental groups received immediate verbal feedback focused on stroke lengthening, as a shorter stroke length is regarded as the most common reason behind lower swimming velocity. From this perspective, lengthening the stroke is important due to its relation with mechanics and energetics in all styles of swimming. The control group received no verbal feedback. All tests were recorded via video cameras (50 samples·s-1). The analysis of the kinematic movement parameters (horizontal average swimming velocity over 15m, time achieved over 15m) was carried out by means of the SIMI Reality Motion Systems 2D software. Analysis of variance with repeated measurements with a Tukey’s test demonstrated statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in the tested groups in the case of the kinematic parameters measured in the study. Immediate verbal feedback (IVF) caused an increase of the average horizontal swimming velocity by 2.92% (0.04 m·s-1). Consequently, the average time needed by the swimmers to cover the distance (15m) decreased by 2.94% (0.36s). The results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed method of teaching and improving the swimming technique using IVF.

Open access

Krystyna Zatoń, Izabela Cześniewicz and Stefan Szczepan

Abstract

Introduction. The aim of the study was to ascertain the physiological effects of verbal feedback on changes in the movement efficiency of a dry-land swimming ergometry task (butterfly stroke). Material and methods. The study involved 100 healthy and physically active males (1st year university students majoring in physical education) that were untrained in swimming (19.56 ± 1.32 years of age, 181.23 ± 4.35 cm in height, and 70.54 ± 8.6 kg in weight). The sample was randomised into two groups (control and experimental). In the first trial, both groups executed the butterfly stroke on a Weba Sport swim ergometer with no augmented feedback. In a second trial, the experimental group was provided with verbal cues relating kinesthetic information on task execution. Trial duration was 10 min, with the first 5 min devoted to the swimming task and the remaining 5 min serving as a cool-down. Variables under consideration included physiological cost, rate of recovery, heart rate recovery, estimated recovery time, and work output. Results. No improvement in the variables related to the physiological cost was observed in the verbal feedback condition although a significant increase in work output was observed in the experimental group (p < 0.05). Conclusions. An improvement in work output without modulating the physiological cost of work suggests that appropriately prepared verbal cues may enhance performance in a swimming ergometry task.

Open access

Anna Kwaśna, Stefan Szczepan, Aleksandra Spirydowicz and Krystyna Zatoń

Abstract

Introduction: Music motivates, relaxes and stimulates action and is one factor which enhances the pleasure that people feel from a given movement. Thus, from a psychophysical point of view, listening to music is an important aspect in sport and recreation. With this in mind, the aim of the study was to determine any changes in the participants’ psychophysical sphere which resulted from listening to music while swimming. The psychophysical sphere was expressed in relation to the Borg RPE scale (Rating of Perceived Exertion) as well as the Rejeski and Gauvin Exercise-Induced Feeling Inventory (EFI) scale of emotional states.

Material and methods: The participants in the study were not professional swimmers (n = 10). The experiment consisted of two trials in which participants performed the Swimming Cooper test. During the first trial there was no music transmitted while in the second trial specifically selected music was played as the participants swam.

Results: An ANOVA variance analysis (α = 0.05) showed statistically significant differences in the RPE scale (p = 0.04) and across all sensations on the EFI scale (p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, p = 0.001).

Conclusions: Listening to music while swimming has a significant impact on the human psychophysical sphere and is expressed by a perceived exertion scale and the scale of emotional states.

Respondents paid less attention to the discomfort of physical exertion associated with exercise while listening to music. The rating of their emotional states, including positive engagement, revitalization and tranquility considerably increased though the physical exhaustion measures were significantly lower.

Open access

Krystyna Zatoń, Stefan Szczepan, Robert Kazimirów and Marek Rejman

Abstract

Purpose. The aim of this study was to analyze selected kinematics parameters of standard front crawl swimming technique and its variants, the “kayaking” and “loping”, in order to estimate the differences that can determine swimming effectiveness and efficiency Methods. Eighteen swimmers, divided equally into three groups, took part in the research. The first group was composed of individuals who favored the standard technique, the second group used the “kayaking” variant and the third one swam in the “loping” variant. All swimmers were instructed to swim the 50 m freestyle with their technique of choice at maximum velocity. Analysis of kinematic parameters (time, average swimming velocity), swimming cycle parameters (stroke length, stroke rate), and the swimming efficiency coefficient (stroke index) was calculated using SIMI’s 2D Reality Motion Systems software. Results. The Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test found statistically significant differences in the studied parameters between the standard technique (S) and the “kayaking” (K) and “loping” (L) variants in the time to swim 25 m ( S = 15.472 s, K = 13.540 s, L = 14.108 s), and between (S) and (K) in the 15 m swim time ( St = 9.598 s, Kt = 8.593 s) and average swimming velocity ( Sv = 1.562 m/s, Kv = 1.757 m/s). Conclusions. Analysis of the differences in the kinematic parameters that define front crawl swimming technique finds justification in the need to modify the standard technique of the propulsive movement used in swimming towards those that employ the “kayaking” and “loping” variants as they are more effective in affecting swimming velocity.

Open access

Stefan Szczepan, Krystyna Zatoń and Andrzej Klarowicz

Abstract

Introduction. Developing the ability to control the speed of swimming is an important part of swimming training. Maintaining a defined constant speed makes it possible for the athlete to swim economically at a low physiological cost. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of concurrent visual feedback transmitted by the Leader device on the control of swimming speed in a single exercise test. Material and methods. The study involved a group of expert swimmers (n = 20). Prior to the experiment, the race time for the 100 m distance was determined for each of the participants. In the experiment, the participants swam the distance of 100 m without feedback and with visual feedback. In both variants, the task of the participants was to swim the test distance in a time as close as possible to the time designated prior to the experiment. In the first version of the experiment (without feedback), the participants swam the test distance without receiving real-time feedback on their swimming speed. In the second version (with visual feedback), the participants followed a beam of light moving across the bottom of the swimming pool, generated by the Leader device. Results. During swimming with visual feedback, the 100 m race time was significantly closer to the time designated. The difference between the pre-determined time and the time obtained was significantly statistically lower during swimming with visual feedback (p = 0.00002). Conclusions. Concurrently transmitting visual feedback to athletes improves their control of swimming speed. The Leader device has proven useful in controlling swimming speed.

Open access

Wojciech Seidel, Andrzej Klarowicz, Marek Rejman and Stefan Szczepan

Abstract

Introduction. When evaluating the swimming technique of people with disabilities, a particularly important factor, besides physiological aspects, is the efficiency of the effort expended. This suggests that assessing and monitoring the effectiveness of swimming should be a regular part of training for swimmers with disabilities. Therefore, it seems important to distinguish how changes occur in the parameters that determine the effectiveness of swimming. This is especially true of anaerobic lactic exercise as the lactic acid concentration in the blood increases significantly. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of calculating velocity and the stroke index in the swimming training of people with disabilities, along with the progressive fatigue of a high-intensity interval training workout. Material and methods. The sample comprised 12 elite competitors with a disability. The experiment consisted in swimming sequential distances of 48 m, 50 m, 52 m, and 54 m at maximum intensity. Competitors performed four sets of four repetitions with a 75-second interval between repetitions and 15 minutes of active resting between sets. All sets were recorded using five digital cameras with a frequency of 50 frames per second. The recorded material was analysed with the use of motion analysis software, and the stroke index was calculated. Results. There was found to be no significant change in the average swimming velocity during each set and corresponding repetition, which means that the participants were able to tolerate the training intensity. Also, the stroke index did not change to a statistically significant degree in either of the subsequent sets or the subsequent repetitions (p < 0.05). Conclusions. We conclude that analysing the value of the swimming stroke index for people with disabilities can be a diagnostic method for assessing the effectiveness of high-intensity interval training.