The Influence of Carrot Plant Control Against Alternaria Blight on the Root Health Status After Storage
A good health status and quality of roots during winter storage especially in soil clamp is a serious economic problem. The proper plant protection in the field can reduce the occurrence of pathogens mainly those infecting at first leaves and then causing root rots such as fungi of Alternaria species. During 2005-2006 the studies on carrot protection against Alternaria blight were conducted in Mydlniki near Kraków. Carrot plants were sprayed with solutions of following control agents: liquid extract of garlic 100% (Bioczos) at the concentration of 2%, chitosan - 20% (Biochikol 020 PC) at the concentration of 2% and extract from grapefruit 33% (Biosept 33 SL) at the concentration of 0.2%. As comparative fungicide azoxystrobin 250 g.L-1 (Amistar 250 SC) at the dose of 0.8 L·ha-1 was used. The healthiness of roots was examined twice, first time directly after harvest and the second time after the storage in the spring. The results revealed that the carrot plant protection against Alternaria blight with the examined control agents reduced infestation of leaves and in the consequence improved the root health status. The analyses carried out in April 2006 and 2007 after root storage showed the significant differences among examined treatments, both in the range of root infestation as well as in the losses of root weight. The lowest root infection was observed in the treatments sprayed with the grapefruit extract. Besides the protection of plants during growing season had an influence on the root weight losses.
There was no clear effect of a specific treatment on the total yield of carrot, but a tendency of a higher crop from the plots treated with fungicides was noticed as compared to the untreated control. A significant influence of applied agents was visible after the storage period. The lowest root weight losses were observed from the treatments protected with chitosan and grapefruit extracts. Untreated control produced the highest weight losses of roots in both years of experiment. Laboratory tests revealed numerous colonies of fungi and bacteria on the diseased carrot tissues. Dominating microorganisms were fungi from Alternaria and Fusarium genus.
The article focuses on the problem of the civil service’s dependence on its political superiors in Poland in 1996–2017. It aims to analyse the motivations of politicians responsible for civil service reforms and to assess the impact of these reforms on the effectiveness of the corps’ functioning. The authors conceptualise the problem of politicisation of the civil service by referring to the theory of politicisation adding an extra dimension of political ideas and institutions as an important factor of change in Poland’s public administration system. The article describes the stages of civil service reform in Poland over the last twenty years, taking into account the political context, the most important postulated changes and the associated controversies with reference to the concepts outlined in the theoretical part. The study also comprises a relevant literature review based on a number of sources, including the reports published by the Head of the Civil Service in Poland, international databases (including Quality of Government) and specialist reports with a particular emphasis on research devoted to Central Europe. The findings paint a multi-layered and nuanced picture of the evolution of the Polish civil service and its strong associations with the issue of the so-called “unfinished transformation”. In addition the article confirms that both the instrumentalisation of institutions by the “camp” of political opportunists and their formal, radical reconstruction by the “ideological contrarians” resulting in the centralisation of power around the ruling parties have had a negative effect on the quality of civil service functioning in Poland.
After conducting two-year observations in nurseries in the Małopolska province, Poland, the species of shrubs on which symptoms of discoloration and withering of the leaves/needles and shoots, and sometimes of whole plants, occurred most frequently were selected for further study. The species included juniper (Juniperus horizontalis ‘Wiltonii’, rose (Rosa ‘Star Profusion’), yew (Taxus × media ‘Hillii’) and highbush blueberry (Vaccinum corymbosum ‘Patriot’). The predominant fungus isolated from the diseased plants was Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl. A pathogenicity test performed in the laboratory confirmed the pathogenic effects of A. alternata on all of the tested species of shrubs. In 2011-2014, a field experiment was conducted with A. alternata inoculum introduced into the growth substrate. The presence of the pathogen reduced considerably the annual growth of all the shrubs tested. The applied mycorrhizal inocula had an effect on some morphological characteristics of plants, such as height and number of shoots. Moreover, the plants whose roots had been treated with the mycorrhizal inocula and were grown in the substrate inoculated with the pathogen also achieved greater increases in growth in comparison with the plants treated with the pathogen as well as relative to the control. The protective role of mycorrhizal inocula against the damaging effects of the pathogen was evident in all the species of shrubs.
The effectiveness of the preparations PB 500 (extracted from cow dung) and PB 501 (silica fume – 92.8% SiO2) in protection of cucumber against downy mildew was tested during the two-years experiment. PB 500 was used at 2% concentration and PB 501 at 1% concentration. The alternative fungicides recommended by the standard protection program were used as the reference agents. The effectiveness of the preparations PB 501 and PB 500 was lower than the conventional fungicides. It was observed that the infestation of protected plants is lower than the control plants, although not statistically significant. The results indicate a limited possibility of application of the tested formulations for cucumber protection against downy mildew in comparison to the chemical protection.
Nowadays electric and electronic equipments are produced on a large scale, for example, personal computers. Therefore, more and more waste is recycled. To increase the strength properties of recycled materials, they are reinforced with various types of fillers such as natural. Over the last few years, fillers from tuffs of volcanic origin have been gaining in popularity. It is characterized by a low mass, high hardness, high matrix adhesion, which allow for uniform distribution of particles in the volume of the material. In this paper, composites based on recycled polystyrene waste with tuff microparticles in mass weight of 10% and 20% were produced by injection moulding. The basic mechanical properties at room temperature (+24°C) -24 and +80°C were evaluated. The aim of the study was to demonstrate the possibility of using the mineral filler particles as compatibilizer for recycled polystyrene waste of poor quality.
This paper presents an investigation in which bio-based polyamide 10.10 was used as a polymer matrix. Composites were reinforced in three different ways including: 10 wt% and 30 wt% of walnut shell flour as well as 30 wt% of glass fibres. The composites were prepared by injection moulding. mechanical properties (tensile strength (σt), modulus of elasticity (Et) as well as flexural modulus (Ef) and flexural stress at 3.5% strain (σf)) were obtained. The mechanical data of analysis showed that tensile strength and tensile stiffness significantly decreased after four years of storage. another state was noted for the bending module, where the decrease in value was at a level of 5% compared to results obtained immediately after injection. additionally, sem images were taken to assess the distribution of particles and the adhesion of fillers to the matrix.
Symptoms of discoloration and necrosis of the leaves/needles and shoots of plants are an increasingly common phenomenon in nurseries. They necessitate the withdrawal of the affected plants from sale, which has significant economic consequences. In 2010-2011, observations were conducted of the health of shrubs in nurseries of the Małopolska province. Disease symptoms were mostly found in juniper (Juniperus horizontalis ‘Wiltonii’), rose (ground-cover rose ‘Star Profusion’), yew (Taxus × media ‘Hillii’) and highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum ‘Patriot’). These species were selected for further study. The affected shrubs represented more than 46% of the population of a given species. Fragments of the diseased organs: the leaves or needles, the base of the shoots, and the roots, were collected from the borderline between healthy and diseased tissue, and used to isolate and identify the microorganisms colonizing the diseased parts. The affected organs were found to be inhabited to the largest extent by the fungus Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl., which accounted for 19.7 to 47.5% of the isolates from the tested species of shrubs. There were also large populations of fungi of the genera: Botrytis (up to 9.82%), Cladosporium (up to 5.66%), Colletotrichum (up to 5.13%), Fusarium (up to 18.38%), Mortierella (up to 7.26%), Pestalotia (up to 5.36%), Rhizoctonia (up to 5.36%), Sclerotinia (up to 6.99%), and Trichoderma (up to 17.09%). The fungus A. alternata, being by far the dominant pathogen, was tested for its pathogenicity for the shoots of the chosen species of shrubs. The test was conducted for 14 days in a chamber with parameters so programmed that they reflected the natural conditions at the height of the growing season. The fungus A. alternata exhibited pathogenicity for all of the tested species of shrubs. Necrosis developed on all the inoculated fragments of shoots. The surface area of necrotic lesions was larger on the shoots of juniper and blueberry.
The effect of tuber dressing and plant spraying with Polyversum (B.A.S. Pythium oligandrum) and Biochikol 020 PC (B.A.S. chitosan) bio-preparations on the infestation of potatoe tubers by Streptomyces spp. was studied during the 2005-2007 years. The Vitavax 2000 FS (B.A.S. karboxin and thiuram) was used as a standard fungicide.
The results received from field experiments indicate that, during all years of study these preparations significantly reduced tubers infestation by Streptomyces spp. The Polyversum bio-preparation, which was applied to tuber dressing and sprayed on plants four times during vegetation period, showed the best protective effect against Streptomyces spp.
The effect of tuber dressing and plant spraying with Biochikol 020 PC (B.A.S. chitosan) and with Polyversum bio-preparation (B.A.S. Pythium oligandrum) on the infestation of stored tubers by Helminthosporium solani was studied. Vitavax 2000 FS (B.A.S. karboxin and thiuram) was used as a standard fungicide. The effect of these preparations applied at three different concentrations on H. solani mycelium linear growth was investigated under in vitro conditions according to the Kowalik and Krechniak method (1961). The application of all tested preparations during potato vegetation resulted in both lower (in comparison to the control) mean infestation degree and lower percent of tubers infected by this pathogen. Results showed that all preparations inhibited H. solani mycelium linear growth.
The studies were carried out both in in vitro and in vivo conditions. The field experiment was conducted during the years 2005-2007 at the Experimental Station in Mydlniki, owned by the Department of Plant Protection at the University of Agriculture in Krakow. The aim of these studies was to determine the effect of tuber dressing and plant spraying with Polyversum (B.A.S. Pythium oligandrum) and Biochikol 020 PC (B.A.S. chitosan) bio-preparations on the top leaves and tubers of ‘Ibis’ potatoes infested by Phytophthora infestans. The chemical preparation Vitavax 2000 FS (B.A.S. karboxin and thiuram) was used. The in vitro evaluation of Polyversum and Biochikol 020 PC bio-preparations on the P. infestans mycelium linear growth was investigated. The above-mentioned preparations were applied at three different concentrations. The experiment was carried out using the Kowalik and Krechniak method (1961). Based on the results it was found that the preparations under examination significantly inhibited top leaf and tuber infestation by Phytophthora infestans. Moreover, according to the results obtained from in vitro tests, a significant effect from the Vitavax 2000 FS and Polyversum preparations and from the highest concentration (2%) of Biochikol 020 PC preparation on the percentage inhibition of P. infestans mycelium linear growth was observed (in comparison to the control).