Low-Blank Crucible for Argon Extraction from Minerals at Temperatures up to 1550°C
The new version of a double-vacuum crucible for fusion of small samples of refractory minerals has been described recently by Halas (2006). This novel type of high temperature crucible was further improved in the following important points: (1) The expensive material, tantalum, was replaced by much cheaper molybdenum which also appears to be significantly less corrosive in the presence of hot boron nitride ceramic used as the insulator, and (2) a versatile temperature controller was assembled from commercially available components.
In this paper I try to explain why the potassium-argon dating method was developed much later than other radiometric methods (like U-He and U-Pb), which were established at the beginning of the 20th century. In fact the pioneering paper by Aldrich and Nier (1948) was published 50 years after the discovery of polonium and radium, when nearly all the details concerning potassium isotopes and radioactivity of potassium-40 had been investigated. The role of Marie Curie’s concept of the nature of radioactivity in the discovery of the radioactivity of potassium is emphasized.
Stable Isotopes (H, C, S) and the Origin of Baltic Amber
New results of isotope analysis of light elements (H, C and S) of a dozen Baltic amber samples are described and discussed. Carbon isotope composition was nearly constant (ca. -23‰), whereas sulphur and hydrogen varied in their isotope compositions from +4 to -28‰ and from -171 to -213‰, respectively. The formation and subsequent evolution of this material since its origin in Paleogene time until present is outlined.
Study on the Possible Existence of Water on the Moon
Aim of an extensive research project is an analysis of surface properties of Moon's regolith covering and the assessment of the possible existence of usable water on the Moon. In the present paper a short historical survey on Moon's exploration and recent and planned missions is given. Recent recognitions are discussed on the basis of origin and history of the Moon and the import of water from other celestial bodies. Characteristic data and chemical composition of the Moon's surface are summarised with respect to possible water or ice preservation.
Experimental investigations have been made on three typical lunar regolith powder samples from the Apollo 11, 12 and 16 missions. The experiments include spectroscopic and thermal analysis, density measurements and sorptometry. In the present paper we give a survey on measuring methods applied and discuss some results. The measurements confirm results of investigations made with less sensitive equipment shortly after the missions. With regard to water occurrence we found that the regolith cover of the Moon surface is rather hydrophobic and can hardly store water as adsorbed layers.
Physical Foundations of Rhenium-Osmium Method - A Review
A newly acquired mass spectrometer MI 1201 by the Mass Spectrometry Laboratory will be adapted to determine rhenium and osmium isotope concentrations using negative thermal ionization mass spectrometry (NTIMS). We describe the principle of the Re-Os dating technique and the thermal ionization phenomena which lead to high precision isotope analysis on NTIMS.
In this paper has been derived the most relevant propagation of error formula in the case when argon peaks are measured. The most frequently cited formula published by Cox and Dalrymple deals with the isotope ratios, instead of isotope peaks heights, considered as independent variables.
Oxygen isotope analysis of shark teeth phosphates from Bartonian (Eocene) deposits in Mangyshlak peninsula, Kazakhstan
We report the results of high-precision (±0.05‰) oxygen isotope analysis of phosphates in 6 teeth of fossil sharks from the Mangyshlak peninsula. This precision was achieved by the offline preparation of CO2 which was then analyzed on a dual-inlet and triple-collector IRMS. The teeth samples were separated from Middle- and Late Bartonian sediments cropping out in two locations, Usak and Kuilus. Seawater temperatures calculated from the δ18O data vary from 23-41°C. However, these temperatures are probably overestimated due to freshwater inflow. The data point at higher temperature in the Late Bartonian than in the Middle Bartonian and suggest differences in the depth habitats of the shark species studied.
Petrology of Gabbroides and Isotope Signature of Sulfide Mineralization from Fedorov-Pansky Layered Mafic Intrusion, Kola Peninsula, Russia
Samples from Fiodoro-Pansky massif were investigated by polarized light microscopy, EDS electron microscopy and isotope ratio mass spectrometry. We have observed four-stage ore mineralization: (1) magmatic Fe-Ti-oxides, (2) sulfide-ferrous oxide, (3) hydrothermal Cu-Ni-sulfide with haycokite, talnakhite and galena admixture, (4) tiosulfates formed from pyrrhotite. A few sulfide samples from generations (2) and (4) were investigated isotopically. The second generation is isotopically homogenous with δ34S close to zero, whilst the third generation shows significantly negative δ34S values.
Radiometric Age Analyses of Rocks from the Northern Envelope of the Karkonosze Massif, the Sudetes, Poland: A Comparative Geochronological Study
K-Ar determinations have been conducted on the background of the earlier radiometric data in the eastern part of the northern Karkonosze-Izera envelope of the granite massif, composed of different varieties of granites, gneisses and mica schists. The values of the K-Ar age for minerals and rocks from the Karkonosze-Izera block lie in the wide interval ranging from 226.0±6.7 Ma to 386.1±3.0 Ma. The K-Ar age data obtained by volumetric method oscillate between 308±21 and 372±26 Ma. Most biotite K-Ar age values of the Izera granite-gneisses complex give an average age of 316.1±3.3 Ma. They correspond to the cooling age of the Karkonosze pluton while the data below 300 Ma are minimum age values that postdate the last granite intrusion of the Krkonoše-Jizera pluton. The obtained results over 300 Ma are mixed apparent ages between the age of the Karkonosze and the Izera granite ages. The K-Ar dates in the studied region have been compared with fission-track (FT) ages of zircon and titanite in the same area which display another distribution pattern.
New Data on the Post-Impact Material in Radiolarian Horizons in Outer Flysh Carpathians and Search for a Source Crater
In the Outer Carpathians in Barnasiówka radiolarian shale formation, there is an intercalation underlied by bentonite. There were found very rare elements and minerals in this intercalation. It was recognized that this horizon has been filled with products of a big object collision with Earth. The age of the manganese-iron intercalation was determined by potassium-argon (K-Ar) dating of illites to be (89.3±1.2) Ma. Similar age, (85.2±0.6) Ma, was found for the post-impact glass from the Boltysh crater in Ukraine. It was concluded that the formation of this intercalation was synchronous with the Boltysh crater formation at the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary. The research for the K-Ar age of the crater creation in Logoisk (Belarus) established its formation to (124.2±1.2) Ma ago.