Algirdas Gaigalas (1933 -2009)
Obituary of Professor Algirdas Gaigalas.
Obituary of Professor Algirdas Gaigalas.
The author collected 26 samples from six loess profiles located in Poland and Ukraine and 16 samples from three galcigenic profiles in Lithuania. TL and OSL dates were obtained for the samples. The TL dates were calculated in the Gdańsk University laboratory and the OSL dates were obtained by the Institute of Physics Laboratory at the Silesian Technical University. The dating results were referred to the OSL = f(TL) chart. In respect of luminescent dating results, the Upper Vistulian loess shows a high similarity of TL and OSL dates. It means that loess formation took place in conditions conductive to ensure that solar radiation the grains were exposed to reduce the energy accumulated in them. The TL dates of Middle and Upper Vistulian loess are slightly older than the OSL dates. The largest discrepancies were found in soil sample dates. The analysis of glacigenic profile dates is not unambiguous. The fact that the TL dates are older than the OSL dates may mean that during deposition the conditions were not sufficiently conductive to reduce the energy stored earlier in the grains examined with the TL method. This time could have been sufficient to reduce the energy examined with the OSL method.
The article studies an average-size parabolic dune located in the northern part of the Chodel Basin, Lublin Upland, Poland within the extensive dune field which covers the contact area of the loess patch slope and the high sandy terrace. Its complex structure and the presence of terrace sand and loess in the floor inspired the authors to conduct detailed lithological studies, as well as TL and 14C dating. As a result, it was possible to determine the mechanism and age of aeolian accumulation cycles in the dune, which contains very good representative evidence of aeolian events in the Lublin Upland.
Distinctly diverse results of TL dating are obtained for the deposits with similar lithofacial features but filling morphologically differentiated karst palaeoforms (dolines, pipes, pockets). The infillings of dolines and pipes are mostly of the Saalian age. Based on sedimentological analysis, their formation conditions are related to sub- or/and terminoglacial environment. The age obtained for all infillings of pockets is underestimated in comparison with lithostratigraphic data. A close genetic relationship between these forms and periglacial conditions seems to indicate that the reduction of TL signal is mostly influenced by the disintegration of grains resulted from the repeated freezing and thawing of glaciogenic deposits. A considerable influence of frost weathering on the decrease of thermoluminescence intensity of mineral grains is indirectly confirmed by the results of experimental investigations consisting in the repeated TL measurements of pockets' infillings after successive freeze-thaw cycles.
For the first time sedimentological interpretation of absolute ages obtained by thermoluminescence method on aquatic interglacial sediments was made. The analyzed size fractions of quartz grains were 160-250, 125-160, 100-125, 80-100 and 63-80 μm. The youngest and most reliable ages from 22 analyzed samples were obtained from the following quartz grain size granulometric fractions: 160-250 μm - 3 cases, 125-160 μm - 7, 100-125 μm - 6, 80-100 μm - 3 and 63-80 μm - 2 cases. Therefore, it may be concluded that the most suitable fractions for thermoluminescence dating are 125-160 μm and 100-125 μm. While evaluating the results of thermoluminescence dating it is necessary to take into account the procedure of sampling from layers of interest, their lithological composition, first of all granulometric, sedimentary environment, including sources of material, the material getting to the load flows, transportation mode and basin differentiation. From all the granulometric fractions of a sample, age of fine-grained fraction (63-80 μm) may be explained by the input of aeolian dust to a basin and sedimentation along with clasts brought to a lake by water flows. Aeolian sand storms performed precise multigenetic sedimentation that was active during that time. Bimodality of granulometric composition is defined by input of material from various sources of different composition. Older ages were obtained in the case of positive granulometric asymmetry. After sedimentological interpretation of thermoluminescence (TL) dating we can state that formation of aquatic fine-grained sands occurred 83.6±10 - 116.1±13 and 130.2±15 - 276.4±32 thousand years (ky) ago. Those geochronological zones coincide with interg lacial periods of Merkine (75.5-114 ky) and Snaigupele (180-280 ky) in Lithuania.
The TL dating of sinter crust of Morasko meteorites proves that the extraterrestrial matter fell about 5000 yr BP. Similar data were obtained for the Kaali impact. The OSL analyses show incomplete bleaching of old rock material especially in the Estonian craters. Almost all data obtained for the immediate impact area indicate ages younger than the Quaternary morphogenesis. The method used seems promising for determining the age of impacts and the origin of small depressions of unknown genesis.
The date of fall of the Morasko iron meteorite was determined by means of thermoluminescence measurements of the fusion crust and related local materials. Three small pieces, commonly referred to as ‘shrapnel’, were used. The results obtained are 4.5-5.0 ka, which is in good agreement with previous estimates of 4-6 ka on the basis of radiometric, do-simetric and palynological methods.
The cliff in Ustka is an active one. The area is one of the most eroded sea shores of the Polish coast. The Ustka Cliff mainly consists of Holocene sandy deposits, but its basis is built of glacial till and clay. Field search allowed to recognize the structure and sedimentary conditions of Holocene deposits exposed in the cliff. A comparison of dating results obtained for fossil soils and peat as well as aeolian deposits, using 14C and TL methods, respectively, with available literature records is presented. The evaluation of results obtained allowed to define three main dune-forming phases for the first time for this part of the Polish coast. During the research studies new data on the processes and environmental conditions was gained and the development of structure of the area during the last 10 thousand years was reconstructed. The analysis of available data from other sections of the southern Baltic coast shows that results obtained are age similar to those determined for the Łeba Spit. The research is part of a project concerning the geomorphology of the Ustka Bay.
Fluvial sediments in the Chłapowo cliff section were studied in order to reconstruct their palaeoflow conditions and stratigraphical position. Lithofacies, textural and palaeohydraulic analyses as well as luminescence dating were performed so as to achieve the aim of study. Sedimentary successions were identified as a record of point bar cycles. The fluvial environment probably functioned during the latest Saalian, shortly after the retreat of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet. Discharge outflow was directed to the northwest. The river used the older fluvioglacial valley and probably was directly connected to the Eem Sea. Good preservation and strong aggradation of point-bar cycles were related to a rapid relative base level rise. The meandering river sediments recognised showed responses to climate and sea level changes as illustrated by stratigraphical, morphological and sedimentological features of the strata described. The present study also revealed several insights into proper interpretation of meandering fluvial successions, in which the most important were: specific lithofacies assemblage of GSt (St, Sp) → Sl → SFrc → Fm (SFr) and related architectural elements: channel/sandy bedforms CH/SB → lateral accretion deposits LA → floodplain fines with crevasse splays FF (CS); upward-fining grain size and decreasing content of denser heavy minerals; estimated low-energy flow regime with a mean depth of 1.6–3.3 m, a Froude number of 0.2–0.4 and a sinuosity of 1.5.
The history of the interlaboratory comparison of TL dating results in Poland started in the 1980s. At that time the Lublin, Warsaw and Silesian laboratories made the first attempts at TL dating of the same loess samples from the Odonów profile. However, the cooperation ceased for many years due to great differences in the obtained TL age estimates. The next interlaboratory comparisons were made in the years 2000–2009 for the loess samples from several Polish (Dybawka, Tarnawce, Dankowice, Biały Kościół) and Ukrainian (Boyanychi, Halych, Velykyj Hlybochok, Yezupil) profiles. Most of the compared dates, obtained for the loess deposits from the Upper Pleistocene and younger part of the Middle Pleistocene, were consistent. This encouraged us to undertake the Gdańsk-Lublin interlaboratory cooperation in dating of 200-700 ka old loess deposits. Nine samples were taken from the Ukrainian profile Mamalyha 2 in 2009 for this purpose. The TL dating results indicate that comparable dates are obtained in two laboratories for loess deposits younger than 300 ka BP. The TL signal obtained in the Gdańsk laboratory for the samples older than 300 ka BP was saturated so such samples should not be dated by the multi-aliquot regeneration method. The results obtained in the Lublin laboratory for these deposits (489–682 ka) confirm that it is possible to date loess deposits older than 500 ka. It probably results from the use of total-bleach method with preheating at 160°C for the equivalent dose determination.