For new railway bridges with small spans (L ≤ 35.00 m) superstructures with steel beams embedded in concrete are recommended and used, which can ensure the requirements of strength and especially stiffness, regardless of velocity.
In all the design prescriptions used so far for superstructures with steel beams embedded in concrete, and even in the technical literature, there is little information and data on the influence of the support line obliquity and the track axis curvature in the design and calculation of these types of structures.
In the design code, if certain conditions related to the geometry of the superstructure are met (obliquity, curvature) the calculation is a simplified one, made on a single isolated longitudinal beam of the deck; otherwise, if the conditions are not met, finite element program analysis is recommended.
The article aims to study the situations in which the requirements of the design prescriptions are not met.
The excessive use of synthetic pesticides for plant pathogens control could cause possible harmful side-effects to humans and animals, environmental pollution, residual toxicity, affects soil characteristics or induce the development of fungal resistance. Alternative ways for fungal contamination control involve natural products, based on microorganisms, many of them being already available for use. The selection and characterization of new biological agents useful for plant pathogens control are permanent goals for plant protection researches. In the last decade, several studies revealed that Streptomyces species are promising biocontrol agents against a wide range of phytopathogenic fungi, including Fusarium spp., one of the most important wheat pathogens. In our study, 60 strains of Streptomyces spp. were isolated from soil or compost and evaluated for in vitro antifungal abilities by dual confrontation method. At least 30% of the isolates presented inhibitory activity against F. culmorum and F. graminearum. The bacterial strains were also tested for their ability to produce various bioactive compounds, possible involved in fungal inhibition. The capacity of some of the bacterial isolates to produce cellulases, amylases, lipases and volatile metabolites was proved. In addition, a new screening method for chitinases production was developed, based on the use of a combination of Congo red and Lugol solutions, which allowed the detection of chitinases in several Streptomyces spp. strains. Moreover, the reduction of the level of some Fusarium mycotoxins was detected by HPTLC analysis. As a conclusion, antagonistic interactions between Streptomyces isolates and fusaria could involve antibiosis, competition and parasitism and suggested that at least some of the selected isolates could be used in obtaining biological control products.