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Open access

M. Hosadyna, St. Dobosz and J. Kusiński

Influence of Over-Cooling the Nodular Cast Iron to the Graphite Form in the Surface Layer

A cast iron is gradient material. This means that depending on the cooling rate it is possible, at the same chemical composition and the physicochemical state of molten metal, to obtain material with a different structure. The connection between the wall thickness of the casting and the speed of its cooling expresses the casting module. Along with the module escalation a cooling rate of the casting is reducing what can cause changes of the microstructure and the increased tendency to the crystallization of distorted graphite forms. Inspections of experimental castings from nodular cast iron with different modules were conducted to the graphite form.

Open access

J. Jakubski, P. Malinowski, St.M. Dobosz and G. Major-Gabrýs

Abstract

Application of modern technological solutions, as well as the economic and ecological solutions, is for foundries one of the main aspects of the competitiveness on the market for castings. IT solutions can significantly support technological processes. This article presents neural networks with different structures that have been used to determine the moisture content of the moulding sand based on the moulding sand selected properties research results. Neural networks were built using Matlab software. Moulding sand properties chosen for quality control processes were selected based on wide previous results.

For the proposed moulding sand properties, neural networks can be a useful tool for predicting moisture content. The structure of artificial neural network do not have a significant influence on the obtained results. In subsequent studies on the use of neural networks as an application to support the green moulding sand rebonding process, it must be determined how factors such as environmental humidity and moulding sand temperature will affect the accuracy of data obtained with the use of artificial neural networks.

Open access

P. Jelínek, St.M. Dobosz, J. Beňo and K. Major-Gabryś

Abstract

Bentonite binders rank among the most widespread applied systems for the production of molds. Their resistance to high temperatures (thermal stability) is mainly defined by genesis of binders, chemical composition and the content of Montmorillonite. The aim of this contribution is to compare selected bentonite binders commonly used in the foundries of the Central European region, in different ways of the thermostability determination as a result of changes of the mechanical strengths of the bentonite bonded sand mixture.

Open access

St. M. Dobosz, D. Drożyński, J. Jakubski and K. Major-Gabryś

Abstract

The article discusses the issue of the influence of furfuryl alcohol content in resin binders on properties of moulding sand at elevated temperature. Reducing the share of this component - due to the requirements of the European Union regarding its toxicity - may cause a decrease in temperature of moulding sands’ destruction and, consequently, the thermal deformation of moulds and the creation of many casting defects. The study examined the impact of the furfuryl alcohol content of the thermal destruction processes and on the strength of the moulding sand at an ambient temperature and the tendency to thermal deformation.

Open access

St. M. Dobosz, K. Major-Gabryś and A. Grabarczyk

Abstract

The article shows the influence of environment requirements on changes in different foundry moulding sands technologies such as cold box, self-hardening moulding sands and green sands. The aim of the article is to show the possibility of using the biodegradable materials as binders (or parts of binders’ compositions) for foundry moulding and core sands. The authors concentrated on the possibility of preparing new binders consisting of typical synthetic resins - commonly used in foundry practice - and biodegradable materials. According to own research it is presumed that using biodegradable materials as a part of new binders’ compositions may cause not only lower toxicity and better ability to reclaim, but may also accelerate the biodegradation rate of used binders. What’s more, using some kinds of biodegradable materials may improve flexibility of moulding sands with polymeric binder. The conducted research was introductory and took into account bending strength and thermal properties of furan moulding sands with biodegradable material (PCL). The research proved that new biodegradable additive did not decrease the tested properties.

Open access

St. M. Dobosz, A. Grabarczyk, K. Major-Gabryś and J. Jakubski

Abstract

Modern techniques of castings production, including moulding sands production, require a strict technological regime and high quality materials. In the case of self-hardening moulding sands with synthetic binders those requirements apply mainly to sand, which adds to more than 98% of the whole moulding sand mixture. The factors that affect the quality of the moulding sands are both chemical (SiO2, Fe2O3 and carbonates content) and physical. Among these factors somewhat less attention is paid to the granulometric composition of the sands. As a part of this study, the effect of sand quality on bending strength Rgu and thermal deformation of self-hardening moulding sands with furfural and alkyd resin was assessed. Moulding sands with furfural resin are known [1] to be the most susceptible to the sand quality. A negative effect on its properties has, among others, high content of clay binder and so-called subgrains (fraction smaller than 0,1mm), which can lead to neutralization of acidic hardeners (in the case of moulding sands with furfuryl resin) and also increase the specific surface, what forces greater amount of binding agents. The research used 5 different quartz sands originating from different sources and characterized with different grain composition and different clay binder content.

Open access

St. M. Dobosz, A. Grabarczyk and K. Major-Gabryś

Abstract

This paper focuses on mechanical properties of self hardening moulding sands with furfuryl and alkyd binders. Elasticity as a new parameter of moulding sands is investigated. With the use of presented testing equipment, it is possible to determine force kinetics and deformation of moulding sand in real time. The need for this kind of study comes from the modern casting industry. New foundries can be characterized with high intensity of production which is correlated with high level of mechanization and automatization of foundry processes. The increasingly common use of manipulators in production of moulds and cores can lead to generation of new types of flaws, caused by breakage in moulds and cores which could occur during mould assembly. Hence it is required that moulds and cores have high resistance to those kinds of factors, attributing it with the phenomenon of elasticity. The article describes the theoretical basis of this property, presents methods of measuring and continues earlier research.

Open access

K. Major-Gabryś, St. M. Dobosz, D. Drożyński and J. Jakubski

Abstract

The paper presents possibility of using biodegradable materials as parts of moulding sands’ binders based on commonly used in foundry practice resins. The authors focus on thermal destruction of binding materials and thermal deformation of moulding sands with tested materials. All the research is conducted for the biodegradable material and two typical resins separately. The point of the article is to show if tested materials are compatible from thermal destruction and thermal deformation points of view. It was proved that tested materials characterized with similar thermal destruction but thermal deformation of moulding sands with those binders was different.

Open access

K. Major-Gabryś, St. Dobosz, J. Jakubski, M. Stachowicz and D. Nowak

The Influence of Glassex Additive on Properties of Microwave-Hardened and Self-Hardened Moulding Sands with Water Glass

The article takes into consideration the researches concerning inserting the Glassex additive to the microwaved-hardened and self-hardened moulding sands with water glass. In the research different types of ester hardeners to self-hardened moulding sands with water glass were used. The influence of Glassex additive on retained strength of moulding sands with different hardeners and prepared by different technologies of hardening were tested. The influence of different hardeners and the technology of hardening on retained strength of moulding sand with water glass and the Glassex additive were also estimated.

Open access

K. Major-Gabryś, A. Grabarczyk and St.M. Dobosz

Abstract

Growing emission requirements are forcing the foundry industry to seek new, more environmentally friendly solutions. One of the solutions may be the technologies of preparing moulding and core sands using organic biodegradable materials as binders. However, not only environmental requirements grow but also those related to the technological properties of moulding sand. Advancing automation and mechanization of the foundry industry brings new challenges related to the moulding sands. Low elasticity may cause defects during assembly of cores or moulds by the manipulators.

The paper presents the study of flexibility in the room temperature according to new method and resistance to thermal deformation of self-hardening moulding sands with furfuryl resin, containing biodegradable material PCL. The task of the new additive is to reduce the moulding sands harmfulness to the environment and increase its flexibility in the room temperature. The impact of the additive and the effect of the amount of binder on the properties of mentioned moulding sands were analysed. Studies have shown that the use of 5% of PCL does not change the nature of the thermal deformation curve, improves the bending strength of tested moulding mixtures and increases their flexibility at room temperature.