Castleman disease represents a rare lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown etiology. It is usually located in the mediastinum and in very few cases in the retroperitoneal space. We present the case of a 43-year-old male patient with a retroperitoneal tumor that was incidentally diagnosed during an abdominal computed tomography scan. The patient underwent surgery by open approach, and the tumor, which was adherent to the superior pole of the left kidney, was entirely removed. The histology examination revealed a vascular-hyaline-type Castleman disease. The postoperative evolution was uneventful, with no signs of tumor recurrence at the 4-month check-up. The surgeon should be aware of the possible retroperitoneal location of Castleman disease, even if it is a rare occurrence, and a complete removal of the tumor is followed by a favorable long-term prognosis.
Malignant melanoma is a neoplasia that has its origin in the melanocytes, the melanin-synthesizing pigment cells present in the epidermis or sometimes in the dermis. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the standard procedure used for staging patients with malignant melanoma in the majority of surgical centers in the world. With a probability of approximately 20% of finding positive lymph nodes, it spares a large number of patients of a complete lymphatic dissection. The aim of this study is to evaluate the factors that can predict the positivity of sentinel lymph nodes in malignant melanoma patients. We performed a retrospective study analyzing the histopathologic reports of patients who underwent SLNB for malignant melanoma between 2012 and 2015. There were 32 patients identified, out of which only three (9.37%) had positive SLN, so the majority of our patients were spared of regional lymphatic dissection. In our series, lymphatic invasion (p = 0.01), Breslow index >4 mm (p = 0.0064), AJCC staging (p = 0.0008), the presence of precursory lesions (p = 002), and microsatellitosis (p = 0.017) were predictive factors for the positivity of the SLN in malignant melanoma patients. Although our results are similar to those published in the literature, we consider that larger cohort studies should be performed to consolidate our results.
Background:Clostridium difficile (CD) is the major cause of nosocomial antibiotic-associated infections, having as main manifestation diarrhea and life-threatening inflammation of the colon. Surgery may be necessary in up to 80% of patients due to the frequent complications associated with this condition. The mortality rate of this devastating disease could reach 50% even after proper treatment.
Case report: We report a case of a 24-year-old female who was admitted with clinical signs of an odontal inflammatory process. After repeated surgical treatments and antibiotic therapy, she presented acute abdominal pain on the 14th postoperative day. The explorative laparotomy was negative. Clostridium difficile was isolated from her stool, and she was transferred to the Department of Infectious Diseases. After a few days without any favorable clinical outcome, she was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU), where she developed acute respiratory distress syndrome. Despite the immediate surgical intervention and ICU care, she died within 15 days after admission.
Conclusions: CD infection is considered a complication of antibiotic treatment, having as main cause the combination of fluoroquinolones with antisecretory drugs. In the first phase, the changes of the colon can be minimal with the manifestation of a false acute surgical abdomen, but toxic colon can develop in evolution, leading to multi-system organ failure and death.