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Open access

Yijie Li, Song Wang and Yuchuan Qin

Supercooling Points of Apis Mellifera Ligustica when Performing Different Age-Related Tasks

In order to study the cold resistance of honey bees, the authors systematically investigated the supercooling points (SCPs) of Apis mellifera ligustica worker bees performing different age-related tasks. There were statistically significant differences in SCPs between worker bees performing different activities (P<0.05). The nectar-water collector had the highest SCP temperature (-3.16°C), highest water content (74.85%) and lowest crude fat content (6.13%). The soldier had the lowest SCP temperature (-6.40°C), relatively lower water content (70.33%) and higher crude fat content (7.28%). No significant difference was found in the SCPs of workers of different ages. Winter bees did not differ from summer bees in their SCPs. The relatively higher SCPs from different kinds of individual bees suggest that honey bees do not mainly rely on their low SCPs for their cold resistance.

Open access

Y Sha, Q Liu, Y Wang, C Dong and L Song

Exploring Candidate Genes for Epilepsy by Computational Disease-Gene Identification Strategy

Epilepsy is a complex disease with a strong genetic component. So far, studies have focused on experimental validation or genome-wide linkage scans for epilepsy susceptibility genes in multiple populations. We have used four bioinformatic tools (SNPs3D, PROSPECTR and SUSPECTS, GenWanderer, PosMed) to analyze 16 susceptibility loci selected from a literature search. Pathways and regulatory network analyses were performed using the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) software. We identified a subset of 48 candidate epilepsy susceptibility genes. Five significant canonical pathways, in four typical networks, were identified: GABA receptor signaling, interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling, G-protein coupled receptor signaling, type 2 diabetes mellitus signaling and airway inflammation in asthma. We concluded that online analytical tools provide a powerful way to reveal candidate genes which can greatly reduce experimental time. Our study contributes to further experimental tests for epilepsy susceptibility genes.

Open access

Hanghui Wang, Yixin Song and Lianfang Du

Abstract

Background: Small interfering RNA (siRNA) has attracted extensive attention showing significant promise for the study, diagnosis, and treatment of human disease. However, the specific and efficient delivery of siRNA into cells in vivo remains a great challenge. Targeted modification of siRNA, viral nanoparticle-based vectors, targeted multifunctional/multistage nanosystems, combining ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction, and tumor targeting in an all-in-one system, provides a useful multimodal approach in targeted delivery.

Objective: We provided an overview of different strategies for siRNA delivery including direct modification of siRNA, nanoparticles and viral vectors.

Methods: We conducted a search of standard database. Relevant primary and summary resources were identified and abstracted. A summary of strategies for in vivo targeted gene silencing was produced.

Results: A list of strategies for gene-targeted delivery in vivo was summarized, including target cells, target genes, target legends, and disease model for each strategy. An overview of strategies for siRNA delivery aimed at in vivo targeted gene silencing was presented.

Conclusions: Integration of the advantages of viral or nonviral vectors into gene silencing could have profound impacts on biomedical research. Recent progress is pointing at answers.

Open access

Ding Yongle, Song Baowei and Wang Peng

Abstract

Tip clearance loss is a limitation of the improvement of turbomachine performance. Previous studies show the Tip clearance loss is generated by the leakage flow through the tip clearance, and is roughly linearly proportional to the gap size. This study investigates the tip clearance effects on the performance of ducted propeller. The investigation was carried out by solving the Navier-Stokes equations with the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code CFX14.5. These simulations were carried out to determine the underlying mechanisms of the tip clearance effects. The calculations were performed at three different chosen advance ratios. Simulation results showed that the tip loss slope was not linearly at high advance due to the reversed pressure at the leading edge. Three type of vortical structures were observed in the tip clearance at different clearance size.

Open access

Ning Wang, Kaijin Huang and Jian Song

Abstract

Diethyl ether is a common industrial reagent and medical anesthetic. It is necessary to carry out real-time monitoring of this molecule due to its harmful effects on human health. In this paper, a highly sensitive diethyl ether SnO2 gas-sensing material has been prepared by a sol-gel method. The gas sensitivity was tested by a home-made gas-sensing equipment. The surface adsorption and reaction processes between the SnO2 gas-sensing film and the diethyl ether have been studied by in situ diffuse-reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (DRFT-IR) at different temperatures. The results show that the SnO2 gas-sensing material has high sensitivity to diethyl ether, and the lowest detection limit can reach 1 ppm. Furthermore, ethyl (CH3CH2●), oxoethyl (CH3CH2O●), ethanol (CH3CH2OH), formaldehyde (HCHO), acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), ethylene (C2H4), H2O and CO2 surface species are formed during diethyl ether adsorption at different temperatures. A possible mechanism of the reaction process is discussed.

Open access

Chunya Sun, Baowei Song and Peng Wang

Abstract

Underwater glider, as a new kind of autonomous underwater vehicles, has many merits such as long-range, extended-duration and low costs. The shape of underwater glider is an important factor in determining the hydrodynamic efficiency. In this paper, a high lift to drag ratio configuration, the Blended-Wing-Body (BWB), is used to design a small civilian under water glider. In the parametric geometric model of the BWB underwater glider, the planform is defined with Bezier curve and linear line, and the section is defined with symmetrical airfoil NACA 0012. Computational investigations are carried out to study the hydrodynamic performance of the glider using the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code Fluent. The Kriging-based genetic algorithm, called Efficient Global Optimization (EGO), is applied to hydrodynamic design optimization. The result demonstrates that the BWB underwater glider has excellent hydrodynamic performance, and the lift to drag ratio of initial design is increased by 7% in the EGO process.

Open access

Da-yong Zhang, Song-song Yu, Yanlin Wang and Qian-jin Yue

Abstract

Bohai is a typical marginal oil field in an ice region, where most of the oil and gas platforms are economical. Sea ice is the main factor that affects the safety of oil and gas platforms in Bohai. Due to the complexity of the ice load and ice-induced vibrations, there are large security risks when developing Bohai oil and gas in the winter. It is difficult to ensure the safe production of oil and gas in winter using existing sea ice disaster warning technologies. Based on winter oil and gas production in the Bohai Sea’s Liaodong Bay, a set of suitable sea ice management systems is proposed in this paper. These systems integrate sea ice monitoring, risk assessment and risk prediction technologies. Based on the risk warning system, an ice management model of a Bohai ice platform has been put into practice, which ensures the safe production of the platform in winter.

Open access

Baoquan Hu, Bin Wang, Chunguo Wang, Wenqin Song and Chengbin Chen

Abstract

Triploidy is a widespread phenomenon in cultivated and natural breeding plants and it can confer some growth advantages. Here, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression in triploid Populus euramericana (black poplar) using the Affymetrix poplar microarray to detect any possible correlation between triploid vigor and a unique gene expression profile. Among the 38,400 transcripts that were detected in triploid poplar, 1,564 and 2,015 genes were up- or downregulated, respectively, compared with the diploid. The majority of the upregulated genes in the triploid were associated with carbon and nitrogen metabolism, especially lignin and secondary metabolism. Other genes upregulated in the triploid included genes involved in sugar transport, and brassinosteroid (BR) and auxin metabolism. Downregulated genes were mostly related to the assembly and biosynthesis of ribosomes and the nucleosome macromolecular complex. The results suggested that BR and auxin levels were crucial in controlling sugar transport, photosynthesis and cell wall biosynthesis. Downregulated genes were associated with chromatin regulation in the triploid. The information from this analysis could provide an insight into the vigor of triploid poplar.

Open access

Wei Song, Huai-yuan Liu, Bin Xiang, Hong Hu, Cheng-jiang Wang and Ling-yun Wan