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Open access

Pakpoom Supiyaphun, Somying Tumwasorn, Nibondh Udomsantisuk, Somboon Keelawat, Wilailuck Songsrisanga, Punjapon Prasurthsin and Ajcharaporn Sawatpanich


Background: The diagnosis of tuberculous lymphadenitis (TBLN) ranges from therapeutic diagnosis to open biopsy with tissue culture. The open biopsies are accepted as the gold standard to diagnose TBLN, but it requires skin incision that leaves unwanted scars. Objective: Test the sensitivity and specificity of fine needle aspiration (FNA) using tissue culture in mycobacteria growth indicator tube (MGIT) and tissue polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for comparison with open biopsy using tissue culture. Subject and methods: Forty patients with clinically suspected cervical tuberculous lymphadenitis were recruited at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital. The patients underwent FNA followed by open biopsies either excisional or incisional. Specimens from FNA were collected for tissue culture in MGIT and for tissue PCR. The specimens from open biopsies were divided into two portions for tissue culture in MGIT (the gold standard) and for hispathology. Results: FNA for tissue culture in MGIT had a moderate sensitivity (65%) but high specificity (83%) (73% positive and 76% negative predictive value). FNA for tissue PCR had a moderate sensitivity (53%) but very high specificity (96%) (90% positive and 73% negative predictive values). Combination of either FNA for tissue culture or FNA tissue PCR revealed an increase in sensitivity and specificity to 83.6% and 80.0%, respectively. However, a combination of both FNA for tissue culture and FNA tissue PCR revealed a decrease in sensitivity (34.5%) but a highly increase in specificity (99.0%). Conclusion: Either the FNA using tissue culture in MGIT or tissue PCR had a moderate sensitivity but high specificity. FNA using tissue culture or FNA tissue PCR may be used as an alternative test for diagnosis TBLN. The techniques may replace the open biopsies because of its effectiveness and low complication rate.

Open access

Jarmmaree Sornboot, Wichai Aekplakorn, Pongrama Ramasoota, Surat Bualert, Somying Tumwasorn and Wiroj Jiamjarasrangsi



Long-term surveillance of airborne bioaerosols in health care facilities is required to protect the health of patients and health care workers. Feasible methods to measure airborne bioaerosol concentrations and determine associated environmental factors may help to avoid nosocomial tuberculosis (TB).


To describe the concentrations and size of airborne bioaerosols and to identify the potential contributors to indoor airborne bioaerosols in TB high-risk areas in health care facilities.


We conducted a cross-sectional study in 7 large health care facilities located in Bangkok and nearby in central Thailand using a 6-stage Andersen cascade impactor to collect viable airborne bioaerosols that were quantified using culture techniques. Environmental parameters were determined using a tracer gas technique with an indoor air quality meter. Other potential factors were assessed using a questionnaire.


The mean indoor airborne bacterial and fungal concentrations were 596.1 and 521.2 colony-forming units (cfu)/m3, respectively, and the mean outdoor airborne bacterial and fungal concentrations were 496.5 and 650.1 cfu/m3, respectively. The majority of airborne bioaerosols were in respirable sizes. The indoor-to-outdoor ratios were 1.2 for bacteria and 0.8 for fungi. Air change rate was inversely correlated with indoor airborne bioaerosol concentrations, whereas emergency department central-type air conditioners and relative humidity were positively correlated with the indoor airborne bioaerosol concentrations (P < 0.05).


High indoor bioaerosol concentrations found in the health care facilities suggest that it is imperative to improve the indoor air quality. Improved air change rate and avoiding use of central-type air-conditioning systems may reduce bioaerosol concentrations.