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  • Author: Soheil Ebrahimpour x
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The immunopathogenesis of Zika virus: an overview
Open access
Assessment of TGF-β and IL10 levels in human brucellosis

Abstract

The recent study assessed TGF-β and IL-10 as immunosuppressive cytokines of the cell mediated immunity (CMI) against Brucella in the serum of some brucellosis patients. Serum from 15 patients and 15 healthy individuals were obtained, and then cytokine concentrations above were investigated. Concentrations of TGF-β induced in the serum of acute patients (89.73 ± 15.55 ng/ml) were higher than healthy group (58.86 ± 17.89 ng/ml, P < 0.0001). While, no significant differences were found in the concentration of IL-10 between two groups. Based upon the findings of our study, the contribution of these cytokines to the pathobiology of infection had been shown. Therefore, assessment of immunosuppressive cytokines as TGF-β and IL-10 levels may be a potential diagnostic strategy for patients with brucellosis.

Open access
CD4+CD25+CD127low FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in Crohn’s disease

Abstract

Background. Regulatory T (Treg) cell plays a key role in autoimmune diseases. We evaluated the regulatory function and frequency of Treg cells and secreted IL-10, IL-35 concentration in Crohn’s disease (CD).

Methods. Twenty-three patients with CD and 25 healthy controls (HC) were included in this study. We analysed the alteration of Tregs frequency using flow cytometry for CD4, CD25, CD127 and FoxP3 markers. Surface expression of CD4, CD25 and CD127 markers were used for isolation of relatively pure Treg cells. Suppressive activity of Tregs was determined by measuring their ability to inhibit the proliferation of T responder (Tres) cells. In addition, the amounts of IL-10 and IL-35 cytokines in co-culture supernatants were measured by ELISA assay after stimulation with anti-CD2/CD3/CD28.

Results. CD patients had significantly lower frequency of CD4+ CD25+ CD127low FoxP3+ Treg cells in comparison with controls (2.17 ± 1.04 vs. 2.83 ± 1.07, p = 0.0352). Additionally, Treg cells mediated suppression was not significantly different in CD patients compared to controls. There was a significant difference in IL-10 secretion in response to anti-CD2/CD3/CD28 stimulation compared with HC (p = 0.0074).

Conclusion. The frequency of CD4+ CD25+ CD127low FoxP3+ Tregs decreased in active stage of CD but there was no impaired suppressive function of CD4+ CD25+ CD127low FoxP3+ Treg cells. We suggest that an alteration in the balance of Tregs and T effectors may contribute to pathogenesis of CD.

Open access
Clinical and laboratory findings of patients with the possible diagnosis of influenza hospitalized in affiliated hospitals of Babol University of Medical Sciences, 2015-2016

Abstract

The clinical and para clinical manifestations of influenza in various patients have range from an autoimmune disease to a life-threatening respiratory infection. In addition, the severity of the disease is influenced by factors such as demographic factors, underlying diseases, and immune response. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the clinical, laboratory and epidemiological characteristics of patients with this type of influenza in Babol (north of Iran). This study was conducted as a descriptive cross-sectional study from October 2015 to March 2016. Subsequently, in this study, records of 123 patients with clinical signs of the influenza-like disease who have undergone the clinical sign in hospitals affiliated to Babol University of Medical Sciences were reviewed. Of 123 patients admitted to a possible diagnosis of influenza, 58 patients (47.2%) were PCR positive for H1N1, while seventy nine (64.2%) participants were women and 21 (17.1%) had diabetes or underlying lung disease. Most of the involved age groups were of individuals above the age of 50. These were followed by the 21-35 years-old. Fever (78%), cough (65.9%), shivering (58.5%) and myalgia (56.1%) were the most common clinical symptoms. Increased levels of transaminases (43.1%), leukocytosis (35.8%) and thrombocytopenia (34.2%) were as well reported in patients as the most frequently reported para clinical findings. In the present study, the most usual clinical symptoms were fever, cough, chill, and myalgia, while gastrointestinal symptoms were also noticeably observed in patients. In an experimental study, a significant number of patients showed leukocytosis and thrombocytopenia and increased transaminases.

Open access
Sever hepatitis induced by Epstein-Barr virus: case series

Abstract

Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a causative agent of infectious mononucleosis syndrome. This infection often resolves over a period of several months without outcomes, but may occasionally be complicated by a great variety of neurologic, hepatic, hematologic and respiratory complications. In the current report, we present the case histories of three patients with acute hepatitis following EBV infection when previously healthy. The patients showed fever, nausea, weakness, as well as yellowing of the skin, and then in the course of examination, sore throat. They were managed supportively and their clinical condition improved. Liver function tests such as ALT, AST, ALP, were undertaken and bilirubin were elevated. The serological tests for EBV infection were consistent with the acute phase of infection. The monospot test was also positive. The patients were managed supportively, and their critical condition was improved.

Open access
Cervical Spine Spondylitis with an Epidural Abscess in a Patient with Brucellosis: A Case Report

Abstract

Introduction

Human brucellosis, the most prevalent zoonotic disease worldwide, is a systemic infection which can involve several organs. Among musculoskeletal complaints, spondylitis is the most frequent complication of brucellosis and primarily affects the lumbar and thoracic vertebrae. The involvement of the cervical spine is infrequent.

Case report

This case report concerns an unusual case of cervical spine spondylitis with an epidural abscess due to Brucella in a 43-year-old man. The diagnosis was based on the patient being domiciled in an endemic region, his symptoms and his occupation. Clinical outcomes improved following antimicrobial therapy of rifampin, doxycycline, and gentamycin, and were confirmed radiologically.

Conclusion

Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial for these patients. The timely commencement of medical treatment can help prevent surgery.

Open access
Mitral-Valve Endocarditis due to Candida albicans: A Case Report

Abstract

Infective endocarditis (IE) is a serious infection among endovascular infections. Fungal endocarditis, especially caused by Candida albicans, is very rare, and its diagnosis is often difficult due to the negative results of blood culture and the presence of nonspecific symptoms. In this study, a patient who developed endocarditis on a normal valve due to infection with Candida albicans is presented.

Open access
Serum and alveolar procalcitonin had a weak diagnostic value for ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with pulmonary infection score ≥ 6

Abstract

Background. Measuring the serum and alveolar procalcitonin level as inflammatory marker in the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) has been taken into account. In this study, serum and alveolar procalcitonin levels in patients with suspected VAP and patients with confirmed VAP were compared.

Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted using 50 intubated intensive care unit (ICU) patients, connected to ventilator, from October 2014 to April 2015. 50 patients with clinical pulmonary infection score ≥6 were divided into two groups. Patients whose bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) has shown the growth of more than 104 CFU/mL were included in confirmed VAP group and other patients were included in suspected VAP group. Serum and alveolar procalcitonin levels were measured and compared between both groups.

Results. Mean age of patients was 69.10 ± 42.13 with a range of 16-90 years, out of which 23 patients were male (46%) and 27 patients were female (54%). Moreover, patients’ mean clinical pulmonary infection score was reported to be 7.02 ± 1.07. There was a significant relationship between serum and alveolar procalcitonin in suspected patients and patients with an approved form of pneumonia (p = 0.001 and 0.027). Area under the curve for alveolar procalcitonin was 0.683 (sensitivity = 57%; specificity = 80%) and for serum procalcitonin 0.751 (sensitivity = 71%; specificity = 73%) for the diagnosis of VAP.

Conclusion. According to the results of the present study, we can diagnose ventilator-associated pneumonia earlier and more accurately by measuring procalcitonin level (particularly alveolar type) in intensive care unit patients.

Open access
The frequency of risk factors for pulmonary tuberculosis in tuberculosis patients in Babol, Northern Iran, during 2008-2015

Abstract

In the current study, we investigated the risk factors for tuberculosis in patients admitted to the Ayatollah Rouhani Hospital in Babol, north of Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 207 patients with proven tuberculosis during the years 2008-2015. Demographic data such as age and sex, smoking, history of underlying illness, illness symptoms, and laboratory results were collected and analyzed at a significant level of less than 0.05. From 207 patients, 136 were male (65.7%), 71 were female (34.3%), and 76 of them (37.3%) were smokers. It is notable that most patients (29.5%) were over the age of 71. The relation between age profile and being tuberculosis has been studied, but the co-relation was found to be not significant. The most common complaint has been coughing (60.9%).

While investigating underling diseases, the most common illness has found to be Diabetes (11.3%). Based our finding, there was a significant relationship between gender and smoking with tuberculosis. Accordingly, as smoking is one of the risk factors for tuberculosis, smokers and non-smokers should be informed that smoking carries the risk for tuberculosis. Such a program should be particularly addressed to males.

Open access