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Sohail H. Khan

Abstract

Propolis is a natural resinous mixture produced by honey bees from substances collected from parts of plants, buds and exudates. Due to its waxy nature and mechanical properties, bees use propolis in the construction and repair of their hives for sealing openings and cracks and smoothing out the internal walls and as a protective barrier against external invaders and weathering threats. Bees gather propolis from different plants, in the temperate climate zone mainly from poplar. About 300 compounds such as polyphenols, phenolic aldehydes, sequiterpene quinines, coumarins, amino acids, steroids and inorganic compounds have been identified in propolis samples. Several scientific studies have been focused on the biological activities of propolis and its functions as a health supplement in humans. It could have akin function in poultry. This review is focused on the current findings relating to chemical composition, as an antioxidant, on performance, immunity, intestinal flora and haematological parameter in domesticated poultry species (broiler chickens, laying hens, quail and duck).