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  • Author: Sofiya Ivanova x
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The pharmacokinetics of zinc was investigated in broiler chickens after single crop intubation of 50 mg/kg 5% zinc aspartate suspension in 2% carboxymethyl cellulose solution. Blood serum zinc concentrations were assayed on a biochemical analyzer. The pharmacokinetics of zinc was evaluated using two approaches – compartmental method and non-compartmental analysis using pharmacokinetic software (TopFit, v. 2.0). After the intraingluvial application, zinc was rapidly absorbed (t1/2abs. =0.1040.02 h) by the alimentary system of birds attaining Cmax of 63.603.94 mol/ml by hour 0.77 (compartmental method) and Cmax =69.274.35 mol/ml by hour 0.92 h (non-compartmental method). It is characterized with a long biological half-life (t1/2) of 13.821.63 h (compartmental analysis) and 15.961.73 h (non-compartmental analysis) and long mean residence times (MRT) 20.122.35 h and 23.002.50 h, respectively. The distribution in blood and extracellular fluid was good as seen from Vd(area) values 0.770.05 l/kg (compartmental analysis) and 0.650.05 l/kg (non-compartmental analysis).


The trial was performed on 10 clinically healthy Ross hybrid chickens, 5 from each gender, weighing 2.75-2.84 kg. The tested quinolone was applied at the same dose for both routes of application - 10 mg/kg of body weight. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloridum 5% solution for i.v. and 1% solution for intraingluvial treatment were prepared. In a crossover study design, ciprofloxacin hydrochloridum was administered as 5 % solution for i.v. bolus injection to broiler chickens and after 14 days as 1 % solution for intraingluvial administration into a crop to the same birds. Serum ciprofloxacin concentrations were assayed by HPLC with UV detection at a wavelength of 279 nm. After intravenous injection the following pharmacokinetic parameters were determined: t1/2β = 9.07 h; t1/2α= 0.36 h; MRT = 10.20 h and MRT = 10.75 h; AUC0→∞ = 19.560 μg.h/mL and AUC0→∞ = 19.843 μg.h/mL. After intraingluvial application parameters determined by the two pharmacokinetic models were as: t1/2α= 0.86 h; t1/2β = 7,20 h and t1/2β = 7.89 h; MRT = 12.67 h and MRT = 12.93 h; AUC0→∞ = 11.340 μg.h/mL and AUC0→24 h = 11.973 μg.h/mL; Cmax = 2.841 μg/mL and Cmax = 2.638 μg/mL; Tmax = 0.48 h and Tmax = 0.39 h; t1/2abs. = 0.146 h; MAT = 2.47 h and MAT = 2.18 h; F = 57.91% and F = 63.89%. These results suggested that a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight provides maximum plasma concentration ater intraingluvial administration and is effective in the control of many infectious diseases of poultry.


The paper presents the level of lead in the liver, gizzard, breast muscles and humerus of game birds, shot during the hunting season of 2016 - 2017 in Bulgaria. In quail gizzards (n=10) radiographic examination showed ingested pellets. In turtle doves (n=10), lead levels in the liver had higher values of 2,501 ± 1,404 mg/kg, compared to the maximum levels of <2 mg/kg. The content of lead in the humerus of partridges (n=10) showed a very high concentrations of 54,241 ± 36,731 mg/kg compared to the base level of 10<20 mg/kg. The high levels of lead in the tissues of the game birds, induced by lead shot exposure, are a significant risk to predators and scavengers.