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  • Author: Snježana Mirković x
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Snježana Mirković, Slobodan Janković, Jelena Džudović and Vladimir Gužvić


Phytopreparations, in addition to the pharmacological activity and positive effects on health, can lead to side effects, toxic effects, allergic reactions, as well as the interaction of conventional and herbal medicines. Despite this, there is a generally positive attitude that herbal medicines and herbal dietary supplements are safe and harmless to health and are most often used on its own initiative, without consultations with a pharmacist or a doctor. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a questionnaire for measuring the general knowledge about phytopreparations.

The study was designed as an observational, prospective cross-sectional study, intended for the valiation of the original epidemiological questionnaire to evaluate the knowledge about phytopreparations. The sample consisted of 218 respondents, who were visiting private pharmacies at the territory of Bijeljina, in February and March 2016.

The final version of the questionnaire for the evaluation of knowledge about herbal preparations had good internal consistency (α= 0.849) and homogeneity when randomly splitting the questionnaire into two parts (α=0.731; 0.788). Exploratory factor analysis singled out two factors.

Based on the results of the study, it can be concluded that the questionnaire was a valid and reliable instrument for the evaluation of general knowledge about safety of use of phytopreparations. This is very important because the evaluation of knowledge could lead to undertaking measures for improving it, which would reduce the potential adverse reactions and interactions of herbal preparations with conventional drugs, and the application would become safe and optimal.

Open access

Snježana Mirković, Katarina Rajković, Sanja Jeremić, Marijana Gavrilović, Ljiljana Tomić, Valentina Arsić Arsenijević and Boro Krstić


The objective of this paper was to assess the antiradical effectiveness of propolis extract (PE) based on 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) bleaching assay kinetic profile. The kinetic profile of scavenging DPPH for PE exhibited one kinetic period characterized by one kinetic constant. The second-order rate constant (k 2) for the oxidation of PE by DPPH, determined for the first time in this study, was 0.17 dm3g−1s−1. The obtained k2 value was compared to that of synthetic antioxidants and natural extracts used in the food industry. Kinetic analysis of PE antiradical effectiveness showed that the k 2 was within the range values for natural colorants of fruit extracts and should be considered as a fast acting natural antioxidant source. The k 2 parameter indicates the extent of oxidation inhibition that is based on all of the kinetic profiles of DPPH bleaching rather than single point measurements. For this reason, the kinetic analysis should become a necessary step for more precise antioxidative characterization of propolis.