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  • Author: Snežana Cekić x
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Histamine and Antihistamines / Histamin i antihistamini


In recent years, there has been a steady increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. Allergic immune response represents a complex network of cellular events involving numerous immune cells and mediators. It represents the interaction of innate and acquired immune response. The key role in the immune cascade is taken by histamine, a natural component of the body, which in the allergic inflammatory response is releasesd by the mast cells and basophils. The aim of this study was to highlight the role of histamine in allergic immunological events, their effect on Th1 and Th2 subpopulation of lymphocytes and the production of the corresponding cytokines, as well as the role of histamine blockers in the treatment of these conditions.

Histamine achieves its effect by binding to the four types of its receptors, which are widely distributed in the body. Histamine blockers block a numerous effects of histamine by binding to these receptors. As a highly selective second-generation antihistamine, cetirizine not only achieves its effects by binding to H1 receptors, but also attenuates numerous events during the inflammatory process. Knowledge of the effects of histamine blockers, including cetirizine, may lead to the selection of proper therapy for the treatment of allegic diseases.

Open access
Alkyl polyglucoside vs. ethoxylated surfactant-based microemulsions as vehicles for two poorly water-soluble drugs: physicochemical characterization and in vivo skin performance


Two types of biocompatible surfactants were evaluated for their capability to formulate skin-friendly/non-irritant microemulsions as vehicles for two poorly water-soluble model drugs differing in properties and concentrations: alkyl polyglucosides (decyl glucoside and caprylyl/capryl glucoside) and ethoxylated surfactants (glycereth-7-caprylate/ caprate and polysorbate 80). Phase behavior, structural inversion and microemulsion solubilization potential for sertaconazole nitrate and adapalene were found to be highly dependent on the surfactants structure and HLB value. Performed characterization (polarized light microscopy, pH, electrical conductivity, rheological, FTIR and DSC measurements) indicated a formulation containing glycereth- 7-caprylate/caprate as suitable for incorporation of both drugs, whereas alkyl polyglucoside-based systems did not exhibit satisfying solubilization capacity for sertaconazole nitrate. Further, monitored parameters were strongly affected by sertaconazole nitrate incorporation, while they remained almost unchanged in adapalene-loaded vehicles. In addition, results of the in vivo skin performance study supported acceptable tolerability for all investigated formulations, suggesting selected microemulsions as promising carriers worth exploring further for effective skin delivery of model drugs.

Open access