Slobodan Novokmet, Isidora Stojic, Katarina Radonjic, Maja Savic and Jovana Jeremic
Discovery of the metallopharmaceutical cisplatin and its use in antitumour therapy has initiated the rational design and screening of metal-based anticancer agents as potential chemotherapeutics. In addition to the achievements of cisplatin and its therapeutic analogues, there are significant drawbacks to its use: resistance and toxicity. Over the past four decades, numerous transition metal complexes have been synthesized and investigated in vitro and in vivo. The most studied metals among these complexes are platinum and ruthenium. The key features of these investigations is to find novel metal complexes that could potentially exert less toxicity and equal or higher antitumour potency and to overcome other pharmacological deficiencies. Ru complexes have a different mode of action than cisplatin does, some of which are under clinical trials for treating metastatic or cisplatin-resistant tumours. This review consists of the current knowledge, published and unpublished, related to the toxicity of metallopharmaceuticals, and special attention is given to platinum [Pt(II) and Pt(IV)] and ruthenium [Ru(II) and Ru(III)] complexes.
Isidora Stojic, Vladimir Zivkovic, Ivan Srejovic, Nevena Jeremic, Vladimir Jakovljevic, Dragan Djuric and Slobodan Novokmet
To date, numerous platinum (II) complexes have been successfully used in the treatment of different types of cancer. Therapeutic platinum complexes are different in terms of their structure, chemical reactivity, solubility, pharmacokinetics and toxicity. The aim of our research was the evaluation of cardiotoxicity of dichloro-(ethylendiamine) platinum (II) in a model of isolated rat heart using the Langedorff technique. Oxidative stress was assessed by determination of superoxide anion radical, hydrogen peroxide, Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances and nitric oxide levels from coronary venous effluent. All reagents were perfused at increasing concentrations from 10-8 to 10-4 M for 30 minutes. In this paper, we report that substances administered at higher doses did not induce dose-dependent effects on oxidative stress markers. The results of this research may be of great interest for future studies in this area. There are many novel platinum compounds that had previously demonstrated antitumour activity, and these types of experiments in our study can assist in the examination of their cardiotoxicity. These results could be helpful for understanding dose-dependent side effects of existing and novel platinum compounds
Katarina Radonjic, Isidora Stojic, Vladimir Zivkovic, Ivan Srejovic, Nevena Jeremic, Vladimir Jakovljevic, Dragan Djuric and Slobodan Novokmet
Interest for the clinical application of transition metal complexes as chemotherapeutic agents initially started with discovery of cisplatin. Despite the remarkable clinical success, cisplatin treatment is limited due to its resistance and side effects. Over the last 40 years, numerous transition metal complexes were synthesized and investigated in vitro and in vivo in order to establish a metallopharmaceutical that will exert less toxicity and equal or higher potency. We have compared the cardiotoxicity of 2 platinum complexes, one ligand, and a starting salt for complex synthesis using an experimental model of an isolated, perfused rat heart according to the Langendorfftechnique. The cardiotoxicity was assessed by comparison of oxidative stress induced following the perfusion of the following compounds: Dichloro(1,2-diaminocyclohexane)platinum(II), cisplatin, potassium-tetra-chloroplatinum(II) and 1,2-diaminocyclohexane, which were perfused at increasing concentrations from 10−8 to 10−4 M for 30 minutes. The oxidative stress was assessed by determination of superoxide anion radical, hydrogen peroxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, and nitric oxide from the coronary venous effluent. Our results showed that the levels of oxidative stress parameters were not significantly affected by perfusion with all the tested compounds and were not dose-dependent. These results could be of importance to further investigations concerning the effects of platinum-based potential anticancer drugs on the heart.