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  • Author: Slobodan Nikolic x
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Patient satisfaction is a key indicator to assess the quality of gastrointestinal endoscopy. The aim of this study was to examine the Serbian translation and cross-cultural validation of the questionnaire for the assessment of satisfaction in patients who underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy.

After obtaining the consent of the author of the original questionnaire, translation and cross-cultural validation of the GESQ (Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Satisfaction Questionnaire) were carried out in accordance with the conductors of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). The study was conducted in the Center for Gastroenterohepatology (GEH) of the Kragujevac Clinical Center and included 165 patients. The reliability of the Serbian translation of the GESQ was estimated by calculating Cronbach’s alpha for the whole questionnaire in order to implement the structural validation. The overall score of the questionnaire was compared and correlated with the total scores on the Short Subjective Well-being scale (KSB) and visual analogue scale (VAS), which were administered to the same patients.

The Serbian translation of the GESQ showed high reliability with a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.763, good structure and homogeneity by randomly sharing the questionnaire into two parts. Exploratory factor analysis indicated the existence of four factors that explain 57.200% of the variability.

The Serbian version of the GESQ showed similar psychometric characteristics to the original English questionnaire, with a similar factor structure, and represented a valid, reliable and acceptable tool for the assessment of patient satisfaction with the endoscopic examination of the digestive tract.


Objectives: The focus of this study is on anthropometric characteristics of footballers in the Republic of Macedonia, and the aim is to provide normative data for selected anthropometric parameters for adult male footballers in our country.

Material and method: The study included eight hundred (800) adult male footballers, aged 24.06 ± 4.8y (age range 18–35y), who have undertaken routine sport medical examinations over a ten-year period. The football players were divided into six age – specific subgroups (“up to 20”; “up to 22”; “up to 24”; “up to 26”; “up to 28” and “over 28” years). Anthropometric measurements were made by Matiegka's protocols and body composition components were determined.

Results: Average values of body height (178.8 ± 6.7 cm), body weight (77.72 ± 7.9 kg), lean body mass (66.21 ± 6.36 kg), body components (MM% = 53.04; BM% = 17.15; FM% = 14.7%) and a large series of anthropometric measurements which define the footballers' anthropometric dimensions were obtained. The distribution of the adipose tissue regarding the body and limbs showed that the skinfolds were thickest on the lower limbs and thinnest on the arms.

Conclusions: The adult football players in Republic of Macedonia were insignificantly variable in height and body mass from their counter parts from European and American teams. The football players up to 20 year, who played in the senior national football league were lighter and smaller than their older colleagues. The football players aged from 20 to 35 years were insignificantly variable in height, body mass, and anthropometric dimensions of limbs and trunk.


Background: Aortic stenosis (AS) is the most common valvular heart disease in elderly people. Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has emerged as a revolutionary treatment for elderly patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis. The authors present the first experiences with transcatheter aortic valve implantation treatment in Macedonia and compare their findings in regard to differences between open vascular vs. minimalistic transfemoral TAVI approach.

Methods: The procedure was performed in 54 patients with severe and symptomatic AS in the period from December 2014 until February 2018. All patients were deemed having high surgical risk or were denied surgery. Pre-procedural screening included detailed clinical and echocardiographic evaluation, coronary, peripheral and carotid angiography and computed tomography scan of the aortic root. A self-expandable aortic valve (Core Valve/Evolut R, Medtronic, USA) was implanted in all patients.

Results: Mean patient age was 75 ± 7.2 years, 28 (52%) were female, 26 patients (48%) male. All interventions were successfully performed through right transfemoral approach with 100% implantation success. Ancillary right radial and ulnar approach was used for correct valve positioning and control. 22(40%) cases were performed under general anesthesia and open vascular access to the femoral artery. All other 32(60%) cases were performed with minimalistic approach (local anaesthesia and analgosedation of the patients, access site was closed with closure devices). Patients in the minimalistic approach group were older, with more chronic conditions as anaemia, chronic kidney disease, poor mobility and peripheral vascular disease (p<0.0001). Also 4(12.5%) patients in the minimalistic group had bicuspid valve TAVI implantation (p<0.0001). Procedural time and contrast amount spent were shorter in this group with 97± 38 vs. 121± 38.3(p<0.0001) and 287± 122 vs. 330± 115 ml, while fluoroscopy time was similar in both groups. Immediate hemodynamic improvement was obtained in all patients. Echocardiographic peak gradient decreased from 85 ± 25 to 17 ± 8 mmHg (p < 0.001) and mean pressure gradient from 49 ± 26 to 8.3 ± 4.2 mmHg, (p < 0.001). Effective valve orifice area was 1.8±0.4 cm2 after intervention. None of the patients had significant aortic regurgitation after implantation. After intervention 7(12%) patients developed a permanent heart block and required implantation of a permanent pacemaker. There was a larger Hgb drop after intervention with open vs. minimalistic approach 1,9±0.9 vs. 0.7±0,2 g/dL (p<0.0001). 3 (13% vs.0%) patients from the open vascular access group had a major bleeding complication with 2 requiring transfusion after intervention (p<0.0001). Mortality was 5.5%, 2 with open-vascular and 1 with minimalistic approach. MACCE rate that included MI, Stroke, Major bleeding and Death rate, was recorded in 5(18%) patients with open vascular approach vs. 1(3.1%) in minimalistic approach (p<0.0001). Hospital discharge was 8.7±3.1 vs. 4±3.1 days respectively (p<0.0001). All TAVI patients with minimalistic approach were discharged the following day after intervention. All discharged patients had a good neurological condition, which was assessed based on the CPC-1 (Cerebra Performance Categories Scale). After median follow up of 26 months, the survival rate was 95% with clinical improvement in all patients.

Conclusion: Percutaneous aortic valve implantation can be successfully conducted with high success rate and low rate of complications in patients with severe aortic stenosis. Using a less invasive approach with local anaesthesia and analgosedation is associated with shorter length of stay and a decrease in post-procedural complication rates and MACCE.


Fear of needles can significantly limit professional and social functioning of a person, and is highly prevalent in general population (4%).

The aim of our study was to reveal risk factors that are associated with fear of needles among healthy university students of medicine and pharmacy.

The study was of a cross-sectional type. In total, 301 students of medicine or pharmacy (82% female and 18% male) attending from 1st to 5th year of study were surveyed at the Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, Serbia. The students were surveyed using a questionnaires (scales) for assessing the fear of needless, a visual analog scale for self-assessment intensity of the fear of needless, and a general questionnaire with questions about socio-demographic characteristics of the participants. Using a score on the scales as out-come variables, multiple regressions were employed to reveal factors that may influence the fear of needles.

Average values of Blood/Injection Fear Scale, Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety and Medical Avoidance Survey scores were 7.89 ± 9.48, 4.46 ± 5.18 and 89.95 ± 12.73, respectively. The following factors affected significantly the score of the scales: course of study, chronic disease in the family, fear of a dentist, smell of the room phobia, sound phobia, score on the Beck’s anxiety scale and fear of a situation when medical staff give an injection. The presence of chronic disease in the family was a protective factor, while the other six factors were contributing to the fear of needles.

Fear of needles is more prevalent among the students of pharmacy than among the students of medicine. It is less frequent among students with chronic disease in their family, while fear of dentist, smell of the room phobia, sound phobia, general anxiety and fear from the situation when medical staff give an injection are all factors that predispose students of medicine or pharmacy to develop fear of needles.


Non-pharmacological treatment including diet, body weight reduction, smoking cessation and physical activity, is very important part of hypertension treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the adherence to healthy lifestyle behavior in the representative sample of the older hypertensive patients, and to investigate factors associated with adherence in the studied older population. The study was conducted on random sample of 362 long term hypertensive (> five years) patients older than 65 years of age, at Health Care Center of Kragujevac. Adherence was assessed using the structured questionnaire for the analysis of the implementation of both hypertension and diabetes guidelines in the primary care. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Nearly 35% of examined patients were highly adherent; they exercised regularly, avoided smoking for at least five years and consumed special healthy diet prescribed for hypertension. Another 35.6% of the cases reported exercising regularly, 39.5% followed the recommended diet for the hypertension, while 23.4% of the patients have still consumed cigarettes. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that received counseling on healthy lifestyle behaviors by physicians and lack of education predicted high adherence to healthy lifestyle behavior. In order to improve adherence of elderly hypertensive patients to healthy lifestyle, strengthening patient-physician relationships through efforts to enhance communication may be a promising strategy to enhance patients’ engagement in healthy lifestyle behaviors for hypertension. Such an improvement could be achieved through the education of both the physicians and patients.


Acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP) is a severe form of acute pancreatitis that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Thus, an adequate initial treatment of patients who present with acute pancreatitis (AP) based on correct interpretation of early detected laboratory and clinical abnormalities may have a significant positive impact on the disease course.

The aim of the study was to determine patient- and initial treatment-related risk factors for the development of acute necrotizing pancreatitis.

For the purpose of this study a case-control design was chosen, including adult patients treated for AP in the surgical Intensive Care Unit (sICU) of Clinical Center of Kragujevac, from January 2006 to January 2011. The cases (n=63) were patients who developed ANP, while the controls (n=63) were patients with AP without the presence of pancreatic necrosis. The controls were randomly selected from a study sample after matching with the cases by age and sex.

Significant association with the development of ANP was found for the presence of comorbidity (adjusted OR 6.614 95%CI 1.185-36.963), and the use of somatostatin (adjusted OR 7.460, 95%CI 1.162-47.833) and furosemide (adjusted OR 2710.57, 95%CI 1.996-56.035) started immediately upon admission to the sICU.

This study suggests that comorbidities, particularly the presence of serious cardio-vascular disease, can increase the risk for development of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. The probability for the development of ANP could be reduced by the avoidance of the initial use of loop diuretics and somatostatin.


The aim of the paper was to determine the factors related to the initial therapy that may contribute to death from severe necrotizing acute pancreatitis and to analyze their clinical importance as well as possible additive effects.

A retrospective case-control study included all adult patients treated for severe necrotizing acute pancreatitis in the Clinical Center of Kragujevac, Serbia, during the five-year period (2006-2010.). The cases (n = 41) were patients who died, while the controls (n = 69) were participants who survived. In order to estimate the relationship between potential risk factors and observed outcome, crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated in logistic regression models.

Significant association with observed outcome was shown for the use of gelatin and/or hydroxyethyl starch (adjusted OR 12.555; 95 % CI 1.150-137.005), use of albumin (adjusted OR 27.973; 95 % CI 1.741-449.373), use of octreotide (adjusted OR 16.069; 95 % CI 1.072-240.821) and avoiding of enteral feeding (adjusted OR 3.933; 95 % CI 1.118-13.829), while the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs had protective role (adjusted OR 0.057; 95 % CI 0.004-0.805).

The risk of death in patients with predicted severe necrotizing acute pancreatitis could be reduced with avoidance of treatment with colloid solutions, albumin and octreotide, as well as with an early introduction of oral/enteral nutrition and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.