Darko Marinković, Jòzsef Özvegy, Milan Aničić, Ivana Vučićević, Slađan Nešić and Vladimir Kukolj
Gastric dilatation and volvulus is a life-threatening condition characterized by rapid accumulation of food and gases that cause displacement and distension of the stomach. The large and giant, deep-chested breeds of dogs are at higher risk for developing the gastric dilatation and volvulus. Uncommonly, it can also develop in cats, but it is also described in free-range polar bears.
A case of gastric dilatation and volvulus in a brown bear (Ursus arctos) is described in this paper. This case was characterized by lack of any previous symptoms, sudden death, as well as macroscopic findings during necropsy - twisted distended stomach, congested displaced spleen and necrotic gastric wall. According to the available data this is the first described case report of the gastric dilatation and volvulus in brown bear (Ursus arctos).
Ivana Vučićević, Darko Marinković, Vladimir Kukolj, Slađan Nešić, Milan Aničić, Biljana Đurđević and Sanja Aleksić-Kovačević
Peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs) comprise a heterogeneous group of neoplasms originating from the elements of the nerve sheath. They are divided into two forms: benign and malignant PNST. Both benign and malignant PNSTs are not very common in domestic animals but they are reported in different animal species. Histologically, PNSTs are composed predominantly of spindle cells arranged in bundles, whorls and sheets, with a different number of pleomorphic cells and mitotic figures.
The aim of this study was a reclassification of 17 dog tumor samples initially diagnosed with peripheral nerve sheath tumors using histopathological analysis. The main criterion for reclassification was immunohistochemical positivity for various antigens.
PNSTs are often histologically very similar to other spindle cell tumors and immunohistochemistry is required for differential diagnosis. PNSTs generally express vimentin, S-100 protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), collagen IV and laminin.
Four tumor samples were positive to muscular marker α-SMA and vimentin and negative for S-100 protein and desmin. The spindle cells whirling around some blood vessels were observed in these tumors so they were reclassified as perivascular wall tumors (PWTs). The other 13 tumors were S-100 protein and vimentin positive and α-SMA and desmin negative, thus classified as PNST.
The use of the immunohistochemical panel is necessary for distinguishing PNSTs from PWTs in routine diagnostics.
Ivana Vučićević, Darko Marinković, Vladimir Kukolj, Miloš Vučićević, Milorad Mirilović, Slađan Nešić and Sanja Aleksić-Kovačević
Histopathological examination, grading, immunohistochemical staining and molecular genetic examinations are the proposed criteria that should be used for cutaneous mast cell tumors (CMCTs) classification. The presence of aberrant CD117 expression and mutations of the c-kit proto-oncogene could be an indicative parameter for final histological grading. Determination of the connection between the localization of KIT receptor expression and the histological grade of CMCTs without c-kit proto-oncogene mutations was the main goal of this study. The study included twenty four CMCTs and six control skin samples from 30 dogs of different ages, breed and sex. Formalinfixed and paraffin-embedded tissue samples were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and toluidine blue and immunohistochemically tested for CD117 expression. DNA was extracted from the same paraffin blocks and subsequent polymerase chain reaction amplification was performed using PE1 and PE2 primers. Degree of malignancy was determined based on the presence of mitotic figures, multinucleated cells, bizarre nuclei and karyomegaly in 10 high power fields. Based on histological features, fourteen of 24 CMCTs were of a high histological grade, while ten were classified as a lowgrade malignancy. CD117 cytoplasmic expression was observed in nine of fourteen high-grade malignancy CMCTs, which confirms the link between the aberrant CD117 expression and increased cell proliferation.
Milan Aničić, Ivana Vučićević, Nikola Vasković, Sonja Radojičić, Polona Juntes, Slađan Nešić, Sanja Aleksić-Kovačević and Darko Marinković
Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a worldwide distributed RNA virus that can cause severe disease in carnivore and non-carnivore species. Red foxes are highly susceptible and may act as a reservoir of the virus. As in other wild species, distemper in red foxes can manifest as acute, systemic and chronic nervous form. In the present study, we detected antibodies against CDV among red foxes in Western Serbia, and analyzed histopathologically and immunohistochemically for CDV nuclear protein antigen (CDV-NP) brain samples derived from seropositive animals. Seroprevalence of CDV antibodies was 36.8%. Histopathological changes included gliosis, neuronal degeneration, satellitosis, mononuclear inflammation, demyelination and presence of inclusion bodies. Immunostaining showed a diffuse presence of CDV-NP antigen, mainly in the cytoplasm of astrocytes and neurons. Results of this work contribute to the opinion that red foxes act as a potential reservoir of CDV and underline the importance of routine vaccination of dogs that could come in close contact with these animals. Potential active surveillance program would give a better insight in the degree of CDV infection in wildlife.
Darko Marinković, Natalija Milčić-Matić, Milan Jovanović, Ivana Vučićević, Slađan Nešić, Milan Aničić and Sanja Aleksić-Kovačević
Mast cell neoplasia in dogs can occur in two different forms: common as cutaneous tumor, or less common as a systemic form of neoplastic mast cell proliferation - systemic mastocytosis. The aim of this study was to compare the histological and cytological features, KIT receptor expression and presence of c-KIT proto-oncogene mutations in neoplastic cells of dogs with canine cutaneous mast cell tumor (CMCT) and systemic mastocytosis. Microscopical examination of the cytological smears obtained from all selected dogs revealed that cellular specimens were constituted mostly of round cells with a central nuclei and fine to coarse purple cytoplasmic granules. Histopathological examination of skin samples of dogs with CMCT and a dog with systemic mastocytosis showed proliferation of the neoplastic mast cells in the superficial and/or deep dermis. Similar findings were observed in tissue samples derived from lymph nodes, spleen, liver, myocardium and kidneys of a dog with systemic mastocytosis. Three dogs with high grade CMCT as well as one dog with systemic mastocytosis showed cytoplasmic CD117 expression, while 3 dogs with low grade CMCT, had membranous expression of CD117. Based on our study, histological features and cytoplasmic CD117 expression in neoplastic cells of dogs with systemic mastocytosis are similar to those in dogs with high grade CMCTs. Nevertheless, mutations of c-KIT proto-oncogene were not found in tumor samples either from dogs with CMCT or dog with systemic mastocytosis.