Anemia is a common problem among patients with malaria infection, which induces hemolysis during treatment. A few patients present with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) and autoantibodies, such as autoanti-E and autoanti-I, during malaria infection.
To report the clinical response of a patient with Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection with a hemolytic condition.
We reviewed medical records of a patient with P. falciparum malaria and related literature.
Our patient presented with P. falciparum malaria infection and received artesunate and ceftriaxone to cover potential tropical infectious diseases. After malaria parasite was eradicated, her hemoglobin declined, and AIHA and autoantibodies were found, explaining the cause of anemia. Corticosteroid was given at a standard dosage, and her hemoglobin became normal within 1 week.
Patients with falciparum malaria and both AIHA and autoantibody complications are rare. Our patient responded to malaria eradication and corticosteroid treatment. Most cases reported seem to respond to corticosteroid with a variety of recovery times. However, corticosteroids might increase the severity of infection; more clinical data to support a standard regimen to treat properly rare hematologic complications (AIHA and autoantibodies) in malaria patients are warranted.