Summary: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangement is identified in approximately 3-7% of all metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, and ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have revolutionized the management of this subset of lung cancer cases.
Purpose: This study aims to show alectinib (TKI) effectiveness and safety with focus on alectinib intracranial efficacy for ALK+ NSCLC patients.
Case presentation: Patient 1 was a 46-year-old woman diagnosed with non-small cell lung cancer with an echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4-anaplastic lymphoma kinase fusion gene (ALK+). She presented with intracranial and liver metastases and poor performance status of ECOG 3. Alectinib was initiated as a second line therapy, after whole brain irradiation and discontinuation of first line chemotherapy after two cycles, due to the central nervous system progression and liver metastases. Good response was consequently achieved, characterized with improved overall performance and without significant adverse events.
Patient 2 was a 53-year old man with left sided lung adenocarcinoma surgically treated in 2017. Post-operative pTNM stage was IIB with a positive resection margin- R1. He received adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In 2019, after two and half years of being disease free, he presented with severe cerebral symptoms leading to poor performance status. CT scan of the brain showed multiple brain metastases. He was treated with first line alectinib after completion of whole brain radiotherapy. In 5 months period he got significantly better and able for work again.
Conclusions: We recommend alectinib as a first and second line treatment approach for ALK+ NSCLC patients, in particular the ones with brain metastases at the time of diagnosis and poor PS.
Introduction. Abnormal angiogenesis is described in tumor growth and it facilitates its metastatic spread. Tumors with high angiogenic activity belong to the category of aggressive tumors with poor prognosis for patients.
The aim of this study was to determine the blood vessels density (BVD), i.e. neovascularization at the tumor invasive front in skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in order to determine its possible role in the tumor progression, and to correlate it to the blood vessels density of healthy skin and with the prognostic parameters of the TNM classification: T status, depth of tumor invasion (DI) and tumor histological grade (G), which were also correlated between each other.
Material and Methods. The material consisted of surgical specimens obtained from 30 patients with skin SCC, who underwent surgery.
Tissue samples were routinely processed by standard paraffin technique stained by Hematoxilin-Eosin and immunohistochemically with antibodies against smooth muscle actin (SMA) and CD34. The BVD in the invasive front of the neoplasms was correlated to the healthy skin, tumor status (pT), depth of invasion and grade of histological differentiation (pG).
Results. The histological analysis has shown a high statistical difference in the density of blood vessels in SCC compared to the healthy skin and statistical difference in BVD in neoplasms with different depth of invasion and different grade of differentiation. The density of neovascularzation increased with the deeper invasion and the worse differentiation.
Conclusion. The increased vascularization at the invasive front of SCC with deeper invasion and worse differentiation has pointed out to its possible role in neoplasm progression.