The labor market is currently experiencing employees of four generations. Each generation has different behavior patterns, attitudes, expectations, habits, and motivational mechanisms. As generational gaps play an important role in the business process, organizations have to find ways to balance the needs and views of different age groups. To overcome the negative outcomes arising from generational differences and to use the strengths of each generation, the implementation of comprehensive and proactive model of intergenerational cooperation, presented in the paper, is becoming the necessity for each organization because of the benefits.
Simona Šarotar Žižek, Matjaž Mulej and Borut Milfelner
Work is a crucial part of human life. One should attain employees’ well-being (WB) to support organisational success. In the first phase, the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was employed to assess the dimensionality, reliability, and validity of the reflective latent constructs. In the second phase, structural equation modelling was performed to test the research hypotheses. By structural equation modelling we found that physical health (PH) statistically significant negatively affects subjective emotional well-being (SEWB). Positive PH and SEWB were negatively connected. Emotional intelligence (EI) has a statistically significant impact on SEWB. The last relationship in the model—between spiritual intelligence (SI) and self-determination (SD)—was negative, but statistically significant. Therefore, human resource management’s activities (HRM) must concentrate on optimal physical/mental health, emotional (EI) and spiritual (SI) intelligence. Employees’ good health supports their emotional WB. Their emotional balance, based on their EI, enhances their subjective emotional WB and SD. The employees ’SI affects their SD.
Maja Koražija, Simona Šarotar Žižek and Damijan Mumel
This study aims to investigate the relationship between spiritual intelligence and work satisfaction among both leaders and employees. Most studies in this area have focused on researching the relationship between employees’ spiritual intelligence and work satisfaction, so we also researched the relationship between leaders’ spiritual intelligence and work satisfaction. Our leading thesis was that leaders and employees with a higher level of spiritual intelligence have a higher level of work satisfaction. In our study, we found no significant relationship between spiritual intelligence and work satisfaction for leaders, but we found a significant positive relationship between spiritual intelligence and workplace satisfaction for employees.
Sonja Treven, Urška Treven and Simona Šarotar Žižek
This paper discussed the significance of well-being (WB) and well-being management (WBM). As successful WBM requires the implementation of different training programs, such programs are presented in detail. The cause–effect relationship between training and individual/organizational performance is researched as well. The aim of the research to support this article was to present WBM, its training programs, as well as the determination of WBM activities concerning the mentioned programs implemented in Slovenian organizations.
Simona Šarotar-Žižek, Sonja Treven and Vesna Čančer
Stress greatly affects not only people but also organizations. Therefore it is very important to prevent and manage stress and at the same time maintain well-being of employees. This paper presents two main groups of approaches: the organizational and the individual ones, with which individuals (managers/employees) can manage stress.
The paper also presents the results of the empirical research on stress, which was conducted among managers and employees in Slovenian organizations in 2011. The analysis shows which individual and organizational approaches to overcoming stress are most commonly used. The highest percentage of employees implement the following techniques of individual approaches: physical activity, followed by eating healthy food and getting a massage. However, the research results about organizational approaches show that the highest attention was devoted to organization of work and the lowest to physical activities, stimulated by the firm. Furthermore, intergenerational adaptation is not widely used to prevent and overcome stress.
Darja Kukovec, Matjaž Mulej and Simona Šarotar Žižek
Successful internal communication in an intercultural environment depends on the organizational culture, business environment, social responsibility, and leaders’ skills. Thus, internal communication and employee adaptation to changing business environments ask what a successful socially responsible internal communication requires. This contribution discusses theoretical foundations of qualitative research, how the organizational culture can define which direction the organization should chose to attain social responsibility, and how internal communication can improve understanding of professional language and be decisive in a working environment. The generated model offers insights into understanding social responsibility and organizational culture to improve internal communication.
Simona Šarotar Žižek, Amna Potočnik and Martina Vaner
Economy, both as the daily practice and the theory, is too often considered as something of its own rather than as a tool serving human happiness and well-being. Humans are not only economic beings - producers, exchangers, and consumers - but miltilayered. Thus, it has to develop a modern model of human resources management, by which the gap between various educated personnel and the offer on the labour market shall exceed, and to ensure the top professionals. Changing values, higher education and experiences, as well as increasing needs and requirements of new consumers, require educated, communicative and innovative labour force capable of making value for the consumers. Thus, the activity of development and qualification of human resources aiming the improvement of individual’s efficiency becomes of key importance. For the layout of the model of HRmanagement the attention should be paid to other important aspects as well.
Simona Šarotar Žižek, Amna Potočnik and Tadej Breg
Spiritual intelligence, as philosophy of company's management, is changing the meaning and purpose of conducting business. Upgraded with spiritual capital it is representing awareness of higher purpose than just profit, and is also a basis for achieving a psychical well-being of employees, which stimulates creativeness, innovativeness, and consequentially, the competitiveness of company. In this article we focus on spiritual intelligence and capital, which we connect to psychical well-being of individual. Our objective is to examine the non-technological phenomena to requisitely holistically manage human resources in organizations; economic and business theories are one-sided. Psychical well-being is determined by hedonistic (emphasis on subjective well-being) and eudaimonical (emphasis on self-realization) perspectives.. Comprehensions of both approaches are combined in psychical well-being of individual, which determines his/her satisfaction, creativeness and productiveness. Methodology applied is qualitative analysis and literature review focused on the field of HRM, human holism including spiritual intelligence, well-being, management, and systems theories.
Paul Jiménez, Borut Milfelner, Simona Šarotar Žižek and Anita Dunkl
Job insecurity is a serious stressor in the work environment, with negative work-related outcomes. The effects of job insecurity strongly depend on the country’s economic condition. The present study investigated the relationship among job insecurity, job satisfaction, and the intention to quit as well as possible mediating variables (resources/recovery and stress). The samples of 251 Slovene and 219 Austrian workers were analyzed. The data indicated that job insecurity is related to higher stress and intention to quit as well as to lower resources/recovery at the workplace. Stress is an important mediator in the relationship between resources/recovery and job satisfaction as well as intention to quit. These relationships were found in both samples.
Anita Dunkl, Paul Jiménez, Simona Šarotar Žižek, Borut Milfelner and Wolfgang K. Kallus
The concept of health-promoting leadership focuses on the interaction between the organization and the individual by identifying components able to positively influence employees’ working conditions. In the present study, the effects of health-promoting leadership and transformational leadership on the employees’ recovery–stress balance are investigated. In an online study, 212 Slovenian workers were asked about their perceptions of their direct supervisors and their work-related stress and recovery. The results showed that both leadership styles have a significant effect on employees’ recovery at the workplace, which mediated the relationship between leadership and work-related stress.