Siemowit Muszyński, Krzysztof Kornarzyński and Bożena Gładyszewska
The aim of the study was to determine the effect of reduced pressure on the osmotic dehydration of apples. Tests were performed under vacuum of 8 kPa, 67 kPa, 80 kPa and under the atmospheric pressure (100 kPa). The samples were dehydrated in a sucrose solution with a concentration of 30°Bx, 50°Bx and 70°Bx. It has been shown that the effect of low pressure application depends significantly to the concentration of the osmotic solution. It has been found that the overall weight change significantly depend on the concentration of the solution, and after 3 hours of dehydration at a pressure of 80 kPa at solutions of 30°Bx, 50°Bx and 70°Bx total weight loss increased by 65%, 12% and 25% respectively, when compared to samples dehydrated at atmospheric pressure. From the studied variants of reduced pressure, the pressure of 80 kPa seems to be the optimal one, as evidenced by the lowest values of weight gain to water loss ratios for apples dehydrated in solutions of 50°Bx and 70°Bx.
Ewa Tomaszewska, Siemowit Muszyński, Piotr Dobrowolski, Krzysztof Kostro, Iwona Taszkun, Andrzej Żmuda, Tomasz Blicharski and Paweł Kędzia
Introduction: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of deoxynivalenol (DON), given alone or with bentonite (which eliminates mycotoxicity) in the diet of mink dams throughout mating, pregnancy, and lactation period to pelt harvesting, on the mechanical properties and geometry of their long bones.
Material and Methods: The minks were randomly assigned into two groups: a control group (not supplemented with DON, n = 15) and a group fed naturally DON-contaminated wheat and divided into three sub-groups (each sub-group n = 15), depending on bentonite dose: 0 M – sub-group fed naturally DON-contaminated wheat at a concentration of 3.7 mg kg−1 alone; 2 M – sub-group fed naturally DON-contaminated wheat at a concentration of 3.7 mg kg−1 and bentonite at a concentration of 2 kg 1000 kg−1; 0.5 M – sub-group fed naturally DON-contaminated wheat at a concentration of 3.7 mg kg−1 and bentonite at a concentration of 0.5 kg 1000 kg−1.
Results: The DON treatment reduced the length of the femur compared to the control group and reduced the bone weight dependently on the amount of bentonite supplementation. However, DON treatment reduced the MRWT and CI of the femur, irrespective of the bentonite supplementation, compared to the control. The total BTD and BMC decreased in all DON-treated groups (irrespective of the bentonite supplementation). Furthermore, the densitometric analysis showed that the main changes in BMD and BMC indicated bone loss in the proximal and distal parts of bone covering the trabecular bone; whereas when bentonite was given at the dose of 2 kg 1000 kg−1 an increase in the whole BMD and BMC was observed in the femoral midshaft.
Conclusion: Analysis of the geometrical parameters seems to indicate that endosteal resorption was delayed after bentonite supplementation. The addition of bentonite diminished the DON action on bone homeostasis in the mink dams. Thus bentonite could prevent DON-induced bone loss in a dose-dependent manner.
Ewa Tomaszewska, Piotr Dobrowolski, Siemowit Muszyński, Krzysztof Kostro, Iwona Taszkun, Andrzej Żmuda, Tomasz Blicharski and Monika Hułas-Stasiak
Introduction: The aim of the study was to investigate the mechanical and geometric properties as well as bone tissue and mineral density of long bones in mink dams exposed to deoxynivalenol (DON) since one day after mating, throughout gestation (ca. 46 d) and lactation to pelt harvesting. Material and Methods: Thirty clinically healthy multiparous minks (Neovison vison) of the standard dark brown type were used. After the mating, the minks were randomly assigned into two equal groups: nontreated control group and DON group fed wheat contaminated naturally with DON at a concentration of 1.1 mg·kg-1 of feed. Results: The final body weight and weight and length of the femur did not differ between the groups. However, DON contamination decreased mechanical endurance of the femur. Furthermore, DON reduced the mean relative wall thickness and vertical wall thickness of the femur, while vertical cortical index, midshaft volume, and cross-sectional moment of inertia increased. Finally, DON contamination did not alter bone tissue density, bone mineral density, or bone mineral content, but decreased the values of all investigated structural and material properties. Conclusion: DON at applied concentration probably intensified the process of endosteal resorption, which was the main reason for bone wall thinning and the weakening of the whole bone.
Ewa Tomaszewska, Piotr Dobrowolski, Małgorzata Kwiecień, Anna Winiarska-Mieczan, Agnieszka Tomczyk, Siemowit Muszyński and Bożena Gładyszewska
Administration of the amino acid copper (Cu) complex ensures higher Cu bioavailability through enhanced absorption from intestine and decreases the dietary Cu level, compared to the recommended Cu dose. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of Cu-low diet on the bone development in adolescent rats. Male rats at the age of 6 weeks were used in the 12-week experiment. The control diet provided the required Cu level from sulfate (S-Cu) and other diets were supplemented with Cu as a glycine complex (Cu-Gly) at 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of daily requirement. After the 12-week treatment, rats from the Cu-Gly100 group were heavier, compared to the other groups. The copper and calcium plasma and bone concentrations of the rats in the groups treated with the organic form of Cu (irrespective of its dose) was similar to the control values noted in the rats administered with S-Cu. A decrease in the femur weight and length was observed in the Cu-Gly75 and Cu-Gly50 groups. Cu-Gly increased the cross section area, mean relative wall thickness, and cortical index only in the Cu-Gly75 group. A decrease in the ultimate strength, elastic stress, and ultimate stress was noted in the Cu-Gly100 and Cu-Gly75 groups. In the Cu-Gly50 group, a decrease in the ultimate stress and an increase in the maximal elastic strength and bending moment were noted. Adolescent rats treated with Cu-Gly at a Cu-deficient level exhibited a dose-dependent strongly osteoporotic cancellous bone. Lower proteoglycan content was found in groups fed the Cu-low diet. In the control rats supplemented with S-Cu, there was no evident gradient in safranin O staining. It is difficult to indicate which dose of the Cu-Gly complex among the investigated Cu-poor diet exerted a positive effect on bone metabolism. It appears that the use of this Cu-Gly complex at a significantly reduced dose than S-Cu at the recommended dose did not inhibit the development of bone and hyaline cartilage in adolescent rats.
Ewa Tomaszewska, Piotr Dobrowolski, Krzysztof Kostro, Andrzej Jakubczak, Iwona Taszkun, Jadwiga Jaworska-Adamu, Andrzej Żmuda, Karol Rycerz and Siemowit Muszyński
The aim of the study was to determine the mechanical and geometric properties as well as bone tissue density of long bones in primiparous and multiparous dams of minks supplemented with β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) and/or 2-oxoketoglutarate (2-Ox) during gestation. Powdered 2-Ox was given at the daily dosage of 0.4 g/kg b.w. separately or simultaneously with HMB, which was administered at the daily dosage of 0.02 g/kg b.w. The study demonstrates for the first time that administration of 2-Ox and/or HMB to dams markedly influences bone tissue density and the mechanical and geometrical properties of mother`s bones in minks. Moreover, it was demonstrated that the supplementation was more effective in the thoracic limb, which was comprehensively used in contrast to the pelvic limb. The mechanical parameters and bone tissue density significantly increased in the humerus in multiparous minks. Only such diet may provide satisfactory production results in the animals. Nutritional deficiencies occurring during pregnancies may trigger body`s own reserves to cover the bone mass increase in developing foetuses and support milk production. This can prevent regeneration of dams’ organisms, which negatively affects their reproductive performance. 2-Ox or HMB may be regarded as a protective metabolite when administered orally to minks, counteracting the negative influences of pregnancy and lactation periods on bones condition. Both simultaneous treatment with 2-Ox and HMB and their separate administration were equally effective.
Halyna Rudyk, Ewa Tomaszewska, Ihor Kotsyumbas, Siemowit Muszyński, Agnieszka Tomczyk-Warunek, Sylwia Szymańczyk, Piotr Dobrowolski, Dariusz Wiącek, Daniel Kamiński and Oksana Brezvyn
Fumonisins are strongly toxic metabolites of Fusarium proliferatum and Fusarium verticillioides commonly present in corn-based feed. The aim of the study was to evaluate bone homeostasis in experimental fumonisins B1 and B2 intoxication of rats, a vertebrate animal model of toxicological studies, as still little is known about the possible disturbing effect of fumonisins on bone homeostasis. Adolescent (5-week-old) male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into a control group and a group FB intoxicated with fumonisins by daily intragastric administration of fumonisins at the dose of 90 mg/kg of body weight per animal in the FB group for 21 days. The fumonisin intoxication did not affect body and bone mass, although the mechanical and geometric properties were decreased in fumonisin-intoxicated rats. Bone volumetric and mineral density did not differ between groups, but bone mineral content and bone ash percentage was lower in the FB group. Detailed analysis showed that Ca, Cu, Fe, Mn, Sr, and Zn bone content significantly decreased in fumonisin intoxicated rats and the alterations in structure of bone mineral phase (reduction of the apatite-bone crystals size) were noted. While the negative structural alterations in growth plate and articular cartilages were also observed, fumonisin intoxication improved histomorphometrical parameters of trabecular bone. Concluding, the dose of fumonisins used in the present study caused hepatotoxic effect, which was sufficient to trigger the disturbance in mineral homeostasis resulting in altered bone metabolism and decreased mechanical endurance.
Ewa Tomaszewska, Siemowit Muszyński, Piotr Dobrowolski, Małgorzata Kwiecień, Renata Klebaniuk, Sylwia Szymańczyk, Agnieszka Tomczyk, Sylwester Kowalik, Anna Milczarek and Izabela Świetlicka
Faba bean (FB) seeds can be a good protein-energy component in animal feed. However, the presence of anti-nutritional substances is a negative feature of FB seeds. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of different levels of unprocessed FB seeds in feed on the gut-bone axis and metabolic profile in broilers. Ninety six, 1-day-old Ross 308 broiler chickens were randomly selected to one of the 3 dietary treatments (32 chickens in each, divided into 8 pens with 4 birds per each pen): the control group fed standard diet with soybean meal and without FB seeds, group I fed 8/15% (starter/grower) of high-tannin FB seeds, and group II fed 16/22% of high-tannin FB seeds. Bone mechanical examination, hematological and serum biochemical analysis as well histomorphometry of small intestine and liver tissue were performed. The intake of high-tannin FB seeds, irrespective of their amount, did not alter the bone geometric, mechanical and densitometric parameters nor influenced basal hematological parameters, however it resulted in: decreased serum concentration of total cholesterol and calcium; a reduced longitudinal myenteron of small intestine; increased mucosa and villus epithelium thickness, villus length, thickness and absorptive surface in duodenum; increased number of active crypts in jejunum; unchanged collagen area, intercellular space, and total cell number in the liver; decreased number of multinuclear hepatocyte cells. Moreover, the livers of birds fed the higher dose of high-tannin FB seeds had lymphocytic infiltrates in portal tracts and sinusoids. Feeding of unprocessed high-tannin FB seeds exerted an influence on the gastrointestinal tract by increased absorptive surface. In conclusion, the dietary inclusion of unprocessed high-tannin FB seeds had no negative effects on broiler growth, tibial bone mechanical properties and intestinal characteristics. Unprocessed high-tannin FB seeds may be used in broiler diets, but their dietary levels should not be higher than those discussed.
Renata Klebaniuk, Ewa Tomaszewska, Piotr Dobrowolski, Małgorzata Kwiecień, Artur Burmańczuk, Dmytro Yanovych, Zvenyslava Zasadna, Sylwia Szymańczyk, Natalia Burmańczuk and Siemowit Muszyński
An effect of the exposure to chloramphenicol (CAP) at doses used therapeutically was studied in pigs at the age of slaughter. Pigs were treated with CAP intramuscularly (20 mg/kg b.w. two times every 24 hours). Histomorphometrical and immunohistochemical analyses of small intestine and liver were done. CAP increased the thickness of myenteron and submucosa, and the length of villi; decreased the depth of crypts in the duodenum and jejunum. CAP influenced the Auerbach plexus. A decrease in cell proliferation, an increase in the number of apoptotic cells and T lymphocytes in the CAP-treated pigs were observed. CAP induces hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity and disturbed intestinal epithelium. It can be concluded that short exposure of pigs to CAP at doses used therapeutically results in disturbed digestion and absorption process in the intestine.
Ewa Tomaszewska, Siemowit Muszyński, Piotr Dobrowolski, Anna Winiarska-Mieczan, Małgorzata Kwiecień, Agnieszka Tomczyk-Warunek, Marta Ejtel, Izabela Świetlicka and Bożena Gładyszewska
Lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) are toxic metals occurring commonly in the human environment that show mutagenic, genotoxic and carcinogenic effects. Dietary components could prevent heavy metals intoxication by reducing their accumulation in the body. The purpose of the study was to check possible protective effect of regular consumption of white, black, red, or green tea on bone metabolism during long-term exposure to Pb and Cd in adult rats. The 12 week-long exposure to Pb and Cd (50 mg Pb and 7 mg Cd/kg of the diet) in a rat model was studied. Twelve-week-old adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a negative control group (Pb and Cd exposure without tea), a control (without Pb and Cd and teas), and groups co-exposed to Pb and Cd and supplemented with green, red, black, or white tea (n=12 each group). The experiment lasted for 12 weeks. The co-exposure to Pb and Cd led to the increase of bone resorption depending on the tea treatment, which was confirmed by the mechanical testing and histomorphometrical examination of cancellous bone. Pb and Cd influenced mechanical strength, reduced the densitometric and geometric parameters and the thickness of growth plate and articular cartilages. Concluding, white tea exerted the best protective effect on bone tissue and hyaline cartilage against heavy metal action.