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Open access

Shuang Zhang and Long Zhang


In this paper, 2,5-furandicarboxylic acid (FDCA) was efficiently prepared by the direct oxidation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in alkaline conditions without any catalysts. The effects of reaction parameters on the process were systematically investigated and the optimal parameters were obtained as follows: molar ratio of 5-HMF:KOH:H2O2 was 1:4:8, reaction temperature and reaction time were determined as 70°C and 15 minutes, respectively. Under these conditions, the yield of FDCA was 55.6% and the purity of FDCA could reach 99%. Moreover, we have speculated the detailed oxidation mechanism of 5-HMF assisted by hydrogen peroxide in alkaline condition to synthesize FDCA.

Open access

Yagang Zhang, Chenhong Zhang, Yuan Zhao and Shuang Gao


Thanks to non-pollution and sustainability of wind energy, it has become the main source of power generation in the new era worldwide. However, the inherent random fluctuation and intermittency of wind power have negative effects on the safe and stable operation of power system and the quality of power. The key solving this problem is to improve the accuracy of wind speed prediction. In the paper, considering the forecasting accuracy is affected by many factors, we propose that, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) is combined with Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to process the sample, which can weaken the mutual interference between the various factors, extract accurately independent component reflected the characteristics of wind farm and achieve the purpose of improving the accuracy of wind speed prediction. At the same time, the adaptive and self-learning ability of neural network is more suitable for wind speed sequence prediction. The prediction results demonstrate that compared with the traditional neural network predicting model (RBF, BP, Elman), this model makes full use of the information provided by varieties of relevant factors, weakens the volatility of wind speed sequence and significantly enhances the short-term wind speed forecasting accuracy. The research work in the paper can help wind farm reasonably arrange the power dispatching plan, reduce the power operation cost and effectively boost the large-scale development and utilization of renewable energy.

Open access

Fan Nie, Ke Hong, Hui-juan Li, Xiu-hui Li, Shuang-jie Li, Wei Zhang, Qing-jing Zhu, Lukun Zhang and Guang Nie


Objective To realize the characteristics of “zheng” differentiation-treatment for hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), a new methodology of syndrome differentiation for different stages of HFMD has been explored.

Methods Total of 2 325 cases with HFMD were recorded by distributing them into exterior syndrome stage, interior syndrome stage, severe syndrome stage and recovered syndrome stage, respectively, and the main symptoms and subsidiary symptoms of different stages of HFMD have been observed. The major and minor pathogenesis of HFMD in different stages were obtained, and compared with the “2010 Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of HFMD”.

Results It was found that the major pathogenesis of exterior stage was defined as “the invation of the wenevil to the defender of the body with the collaterals got involved”, and the minor as “qi deficiency”; in interior stage, “the fury of Gan-Yang” was the main pathogenesis, and “qi in chaos and qi deficiency” was the minor; in severe syndrome stage, “the damage of heart, liver and lung” was the main pathogenesis, and “qi in chaos” was the minor; and the pathogenesis of recovered stage was “qi-yin deficiency”. Compared with the “2010 Guideline for the Diagnosis and Treatment of HFMD”, it showed that “the obstruction of the fei-pi qi by the mixture of shi-re evil” and “the mixture of shi-re” in vivo was quite difficult to be explained in completely different context in the general situation; in the severe stage, the TCM clinical characteristics of syndrome differentiation might lose; in the early acute severe cases, the phenomenon that xin-yang and fei-qi almost ran out was difficult to be observed, then, the line between the severe and the acute severe became vague.

Conclusions The theory of syndrome differentiation by stages of HFMD was reasonable in the actual situation of clinical description on HFMD which was expected to be further tested and widely applied in the “zheng” differentiation-treatment of HFMD in the future.

Open access

Yi-Ming Zhang, Dong-Xu Yu, Bai-Shuang Yin, Xin-Ran Li, Li-Na Li, Ya-Nan Li, Yu-Xin Wang, Yu Chen, Wen-Han Liu and Li Gao



Xylazine, a type of α2-adrenoceptors, is a commonly used drug in veterinary medicine. Xylazine-induced changes in the content of amino acid neurotransmitters – glycine (Gly) and aspartic acid (Asp), in different brain regions and neurons were studied.

Material and Methods

Wistar rats were administered 50 mg/kg or 70 mg/kg of xylazine by intraperitoneal injection. In addition, in vitro experiments were conducted, in which neurons were treated with 15 μg/mL, 25 μg/mL, 35μg/mL, and 45 μg/mL of xylazine. Test methods were based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).


During anaesthesia, Asp levels in each brain area were significantly lower compared to the control group. Except for the cerebrum, levels of Gly in other brain areas were significantly increased during the anaesthesia period. In vitro, xylazine-related neuron secretion of Gly increased significantly compared to the control group at 60 min and 90 min. Moreover, xylazine caused a significant decrease in the levels of Asp secreted by neurons at 20 min, but gradually returned to the level of the control group.


The data showed that during anaesthesia the overall levels of Asp decreased and overall levels of Gly increased. In addition, the inhibitory effect of xylazine on Asp and the promotion of Gly were dose-dependent. Our data showed that different effects of xylazine on excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters provided a theoretical basis for the mechanism of xylazine activity in clinical anaesthesia.

Open access

Guo-liang Zhang, Jian-bo Ding, Shuang-jie Li, Xi Zhang, Yi Xu, Hua-sheng Yang, Dan Wei, Qin Li, Qing-sheng Shi, Qing-xiong Zhu, Tong Yang, Zi-qiang Zhuo, Yi-mei Tian, Hao-jie Zheng, Liu-ping Tang, Xin-ying Zou, Tao Wen and Xiu-hui Li

Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) combined with Western medicine in the treatment of patients with common hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) by conducting a prospective, controlled, and randomized trial.

Methods A total of 452 patients with common HFMD were randomly assigned to receive Western medicine alone (n = 220) or combined with TCM (Reduning or Xiyanping injections) (n = 232). The primary outcome was the incidence rate of rash/herpes disappearance within 5 days, while secondary outcomes included the incidence rate for fever, cough, lethargy, agitation, and vomiting clearance within 5 days.

Results The rash/herpes disappearance rate was 45.5% (100/220) in Western medicine therapy group, and 67.2% (156/232) in TCM and Western medicine combined therapy group, with significant difference (P < 0.001). Moreover, TCM remarkably increased the incidence rate of secondary disappearance, which was 56.4% in Western medicine therapy group and 71.4% in TCM and Western medicine combined therapy group (P = 0.001). No drug-related adverse events were observed.

Conclusions It’s suggested that the integrative TCM and Western medicine therapy achieved a better therapeutic efficacy. TCM may become an important complementary therapy on relieving the symptoms of HFMD.