A cut-vertex in a graph G is a vertex whose removal increases the number of connected components of G. An end-block of G is a block with a single cut-vertex. In this paper we establish upper bounds on the numbers of end-blocks and cut-vertices in a 4-regular graph G and claw-free 4-regular graphs. We characterize the extremal graphs achieving these bounds.
Background: In Taiwan, tooth loss increases with aging. However, little is known about the oral health of adults between ages 18 to 64 years and associated factors for tooth loss.
Objective: To identify associated independent factors for tooth loss among Taiwanese adults aged 18 to 64 years.
Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated oral health and tooth loss among adults aged 18 to 64 years. Demographics, tooth loss data, and oral health-related variables were collected from a secondary database and were analyzed to determine risk factors for tooth loss.
Results: In adults aged 18 to 64, older age, unmarried status, lower income, higher BMI, and chronic disease were associated with tooth loss. Adults with disease histories (i.e., hypertension, diabetes, asthma, heart disease) or who smoked or chewed betel nut were more likely to have missing teeth. Adults who had regular dental hygiene practices such as using dental floss, mouthwash, and having regular professional scaling were less likely to have missing teeth.
Conclusions: Knowledge of associated risk factors for tooth loss in adults aged 18 to 64 years may help develop national programs and policies for dental care in Taiwan specific for younger and middle-aged adults and help to promote long-term oral health throughout adulthood.
Guowei Shu, Shuai Wang, He Chen, Man Hu, Tao Qin and Qi Ma
In order to investigative the effect of different neutralizers and their feeding time on culture of Bifidobacterium bifidum BB01, and pH, OD and viable count of B. bifidumBB01 in the medium in different time were measured. The results indicated that the NaOH solution was the optimum neutralizer compared with the others, and feeding time of the neutralizer to B. bifidum BB01 was 13 hours after inoculation. Furthermore, the OD value and viable count reached maximum at 21h (OD value= 1.667) and 20h (viable count: (3.52±0.046) ×109 CFU/mL) after the NaOH solution was added to the medium, respectively. In addition, the maximum OD value implied that the logarithmic phase of B. bifidum BB01 was delayed compared with the control and the viable count were 29.26% larger than the control group. The result of the study provides a method and an important basis for improving the viable counts of B. bifidum BB01.
Guowei Shu, Mengqi Tian, Binyun Cao, Changfeng Wang and Ni Xin
Development of synbiotic yogurt having multiple health benefits has become a new trend. The purpose of this study was to obtain the optimum stachyose concentration of the goat yogurt fermented by probiotics including Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA) or Lactobacillus casei (LC) besides Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus by measuring pH, acidity, viable counts and the change of stachyose content. The optimal stachyose concentration of goat LA-yogurt and goat LC-yogurt were 0.4% and 0.8%. Under the above concentrations, the total bacteria number and the viable counts of LA were 2.02×109cfu/mL, 3×107cfu/mL, respectively; the total bacteria number and the viable counts of LC were 2.55×109cfu/mL, 2.53×108cfu/mL, respectively. The results indicate that stachyose can effectively improve the vitality and the viable counts of strains in goat yogurt.
Jiasan Zheng, Shi Shu, Cheng Xia, Chuang Xu, Hongyou Zhang and Hongbin Wang
Introduction: The differentially expressed proteins between healthy cows and those with footrot were identified to explore changes in protein profiles associated with the disease. Material and Methods: Out of 36 cows selected for the experiment, 18 footrot-affected cows were included in the treatment group (group T) and 18 unaffected cows were included in the control group (group C). Plasma samples from groups T and C were subjected to two-dimensional electrophoresis analysis and differentially expressed proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Bioinformatics, including gene ontology analysis and pathway analysis, was used for analysing all proteins. Results: Out of 63 spots identified by 2DE, 33 were selected for mass spectrum analysis, which identified 11 differentially expressed proteins in 26 spots. Footrot led to changes in profiles in plasma proteins that were classified to the pathway of inflammatory response, complement, and blood coagulation, among others. Conclusion: This study provides evidence of the defence mechanisms of cows with footrot to explore strategies for treatment.
Guowei Shu, Zhuo Wang, Li Chen, Qian Zhang and Ni Xin
Antioxidant peptides can inhibit lipid peroxidation and scavenging free radicals, maintain the balance of free radicals, and against a variety of diseases. Response surface methodology was used to optimize process conditions for producing antioxidative peptides from goat’s milk casein hydrolysate with Alcalase. The results suggested that the optimal process parameters were: temperature at 62.5°C, pH 8.9, E/S ration at 2.5%, substrate concentration at 4.4% and hydrolysis time was 173min). Metal-chelating effect, superoxide anion radical scavenging activity and 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity were shown to be 87.21±0.88%, 49.18±1.42% and 69.07±1.26% respectively under the optimal condition. The actual and predicated value were closely which indicated the optimized data fit well to model and the optimized parameters are reliable.
Jun Liu, Zhihao Chen, Jijun Zhao, Shu Wang, Li Ding, Xiaosong Wu, Long Zhang and Qian Feng
The width of cut tobacco strands is an important indicator for physical parameters as well as for the smoking quality. In some countries, cut width helps to distinguish fine-cut tobacco and pipe tobacco and thus differentiates taxation rate. A new method for rapid measurement of the width of cut tobacco strands was developed based on digital image processing, because the method described in ISO 20193, though easy to implement in factories, proved time consuming and generated high testing costs. The essence of this method is to determine the statistic width of incisions. The straight-line segments represent the width of strands of cut tobacco, from which the determination of the width for randomly placed tobacco strands could be achieved. Five kinds of samples (‘ISO collaborative study samples 0.4 mm, 1.0 mm, 1.6 mm and 3.0 mm’ and ‘Guangdong baked 0.9 mm’) were used to study the comparability of the measurement results between the method presented in this work and the current ISO method. Results show that accuracy and repeatability are comparable. In addition, the testing efficiency of the method presented in this work appears to be higher than the current ISO method, and it is thus a promising alternative method for measuring the width of strands of cut tobacco.
Yan Y. Wu, Hui R. Jia, Qiang Wang, Ping L. Dai, Qing Y. Diao, Shu F. Xu, Xing Wang and Ting Zhou
China has the largest number of managed honey bee colonies globally, but there is currently no data on viral infection in diseased A. mellifera L. colonies in China. In particular, there is a lack of data on chronic bee paralysis virus (CBPV) in Chinese honey bee colonies. Consequently, the present study investigated the occurrence and frequency of several widespread honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries, and we used the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Described was the relationship between the presence of CBPV and diseased colonies (with at least one of the following symptoms: depopulation, paralysis, dark body colorings and hairless, or a mass of dead bees on the ground surrounding the beehives). Phylogenetic analyses of CBPV were employed. The prevalence of multiple infections of honey bee viruses in diseased Chinese apiaries was 100%, and the prevalence of infections with even five and six viruses were higher than expected. The incidence of CBPV in diseased colonies was significantly higher than that in apparently healthy colonies in Chinese A. mellifera aparies, and CBPV isolates from China can be separated into Chinese-Japanese clade 1 and 2. The results indicate that beekeeping in China may be threatened by colony decline due to the high prevalence of multiple viruses with CBPV.
Qian Ma, Ke Wang, Shu-Dong Wang, Hua Liu, Bo-Cheng Jin, Li-Min Jin and Pibo Ma
The quasi-static tensile damage behavior of one type of layer-to-layer 3-Dimensional Angle-interlock Woven Composite (3DAWC) was tested and analyzed in this paper. Incorporated with the acoustic emission (AE) events monitoring, the mechanical behavior of the 3DAWC under tensile loading condition was characterized. The Load-Extension curve, Load/AE events-Time curves occurred during the entire testing process and tensile damage modes were recorded to characterize and summarize the mechanical properties and damage mechanism of the 3DAWC subjected to tensile loading. It was found that the tensile damage of the 3DAWC could be summarized into 3 steps. And each step has a distinct primary damage mode. Moreover, the resin cracks, resin-yarn interface debonding and yarn breakages were the main damage modes for the 3DAWC.