To study the hydrothermal behavior of cotton fiber, the carbonization process and structural evolution of discarded or waste cotton fiber (WCF) under hydrothermal conditions were investigated using microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), and glucose was used as a model compound. Results showed that high temperature was beneficial for the hydrolysis of discarded cotton fiber, and the yield of sugar was 4.5%, which was lower than that of MCC (6.51%). WCF and MCC were carbonized at 240–~260°C and 220–~240°C, respectively, whereas the carbonization temperature of glucose was lower than 220°C. The C/O ratios of WCF and glucose hydrothermal products were 5.79 and 5.85, respectively. The three kinds of hydrothermal carbonization products had similar crystal structures and oxygen-containing functional groups. The carbonized products of WCF contained many irregular particles, while the main products of glucose carbonization were 0.5-mm-sized carbon microspheres (CMSs). Results showed that glucose was an important intermediate in WCF carbonization and that there were two main pathways of hydrothermal carbonization of cotton fibers: some cotton fibers were completely hydrolyzed into glucose accompanied by nucleation and then the growth of CMSs. For the other part, the glucose ring of the oligosaccharide, formed by the incomplete hydrolysis of cotton fibers under hydrothermal conditions of high temperature and pressure, breaks and then forms particulate matter.
The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo performance of salbutamol sulfate press-coated tablets for delayed release. The in vitro release behavior of press-coated tablets with the outer layer of PEG 6000/ Eudragit S100 blends (2:1) in pH 1.2 (0.1 mol L-1 HCl) and then pH 6.8 buffer solution was examined. Morphological change of the press-coated tablet during in vitro release was recorded with a digital camera. Release of salbutamol sulfate from press-coated tablets was less than 5 % before 3 h and was completed after 8 h in pH 6.8 phosphate buffer solution. In vivo gamma scintigraphy study carried out on healthy men indicated that the designed system released the drug in lower parts of the GI tract after a lag time of 5 hours. The results showed the capability of the system of achieving delayed release of the drug in both in vitro and in vivo gamma scintigraphy studies.
Background: Rocuronium is an alternative to succinylcholine for rapid tracheal intubation after major thermal injury and other forms of critical illness that cause denervation changes in skeletal muscle. Rocuronium may decrease the potencies of non-depolarizing muscle relaxants.
Objectives: Examine whether potency of rocuronium changed during the first month after denervation, and investigate the effects of skeletal muscle denervation on potency of rocuronium.
Methods: The denervation mouse model was developed to create denervated individual cells from the flexor digitorum brevis of the hindfoot. The skeletal muscle cells were examined at day 0 in the innervated control and days 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 in the denervation group. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the cells were activated with 30 M acetylcholine, alone or in combination with various concentrations of rocuronium. Currents were recorded with a whole-cell patch-clamp technique.
Results: Rocuronium reversibly inhibited acetylcholine-activated currents in a dose-dependent fashion at different times after denervation. The inhibition concentration for the half-maximal responses of rocuronium increased 1.2- (p >0.05), 1.8-, 2.8-, 2.3-, 2.1-, and 1.9-fold (p <0.01) at day 1, 4, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after denervation, respectively, compared to that at day 0 after denervation.
Conclusion: Rocuronium dose required to achieve satisfactory clinical effects changed at different durations after skeletal muscle denervation.
Background: Ocular disorders have greatest potential for benefit from gene therapy. The major obstacle in the clinical application of gene therapy is not due to the lack of an ideal gene, but rather the lack of a clinically safe and efficient gene transfer method. Ultrasound (US) targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD)-mediated gene delivery system as a noninvasive gene transfer method is now widely used in gene therapy of cardiovascular disease, muscular tissue, and tumor, and proved to effectively enhance gene transfer in various studies in vitro and in vivo. However, it is just the beginning of application for ophthalmological disease.
Objective: Review the latest advancements in UTMD-mediated ocular gene transfection and discuss mechanisms of UTMD involved in gene transfection, obstacles, and limitations to the use of this technology, as well as the perspectives for future applications of UTMD-mediated gene delivery system.
Methods: Summarize published literature concerning UTMD-mediated ocular gene transfection.
Results: UTMD is an effective and safe gene delivery method of therapy for ocular diseases. Considerable progress has been made in US or UTMD-mediated viral and nonviral ocular gene delivery to retina, like recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) and nanoparticles as nonviral gene carriers. In addition, UTMD has potential for producing the blood-retinal barrier opening and serves as a promising method for intravenous ocular gene delivery.
Conclusion: UTMD-mediated gene delivery system could effectively enhance gene transfer into ocular tissue. Though several problems remain to be solved, UTMD is a promising technology for the targeted gene therapy of ocular disease.
Objective Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have linked many single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to the outcomes of a variety of liver diseases. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of several candidate SNPs with the risk and severity of cirrhosis due to chronic hepatitis B in a Chinese population.
Methods A total of 714 Chinese participants with persistent HBV infection were studied. Patients were divided into cirrhotic (n = 429) and non-cirrhotic (n = 285) groups based on clinical and pathological evidence. The progression rate and severity of liver cirrhosis were evaluated with an arbitrary t-score system. Genotypes of six SNPs in five candidate genes were detected with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The genotypic distributions of the SNPs were compared between the age-matched cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic subjects. The association between the risk of SNPs and the severity and progression rate of cirrhosis was further analyzed.
Results Rs2679757 polymorphism of the antizyme inhibitor 1 (AZIN1) gene and Rs886277 in the transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M, member 5 gene (TRPM5) were found to be associated with cirrhosis risk in CHB. They were also correlated with the overall severity and progression rate of cirrhosis. Genotype frequencies of other SNPs were not different between the cirrhosis and non-cirrhosis groups.
Conclusions AZIN1 rs2679757 and TRPM5 rs886277 are associated with the risk and the progression rate of HBV-related liver fibrosis in Chinese patients. The emerging SNPs associated with cirrhosis prognosis warrant further clinical validation in other CHB cohorts or ethnic groups, and merit mechanistic studies to reveal their roles in fibrosis progression.
Objective To evaluate the efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) combined with Western medicine in the treatment of patients with common hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) by conducting a prospective, controlled, and randomized trial.
Methods A total of 452 patients with common HFMD were randomly assigned to receive Western medicine alone (n = 220) or combined with TCM (Reduning or Xiyanping injections) (n = 232). The primary outcome was the incidence rate of rash/herpes disappearance within 5 days, while secondary outcomes included the incidence rate for fever, cough, lethargy, agitation, and vomiting clearance within 5 days.
Results The rash/herpes disappearance rate was 45.5% (100/220) in Western medicine therapy group, and 67.2% (156/232) in TCM and Western medicine combined therapy group, with significant difference (P < 0.001). Moreover, TCM remarkably increased the incidence rate of secondary disappearance, which was 56.4% in Western medicine therapy group and 71.4% in TCM and Western medicine combined therapy group (P = 0.001). No drug-related adverse events were observed.
Conclusions It’s suggested that the integrative TCM and Western medicine therapy achieved a better therapeutic efficacy. TCM may become an important complementary therapy on relieving the symptoms of HFMD.