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  • Author: Shen Xie x
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Second-Order Partial Differentiation of Real Binary Functions

Second-Order Partial Differentiation of Real Binary Functions

In this article we define second-order partial differentiation of real binary functions and discuss the relation of second-order partial derivatives and partial derivatives defined in [17].

Open access
Analyses on Clinical Trials Literature: the Characteristics of Acu-moxa Manipulation for Hyperlipidemia

Abstract

Objective: To sort out and analyze on acupuncture-moxibustion (AM) based clinical trials literature for hyperlipidemia (HLP) so that to find out the characteristics of AM, by which the more rational strategy of AM for HLP could be made.

Methods: We searched clinical trial paper on hyperlipidemia by AM in the main English and Chinese databases, included those met the eligibility, and employed the metrologic method to analyze and summarize the AM manipulation features.

Results: (1) A total of 124 articles were included with 128 times of AM methods in this study. (2) AM methods were broadly distributed: 29 articles on mild moxibustion, 24 on manual acupuncture, 21 on electro-acupuncture, 6 on magnetic needle, 6 on herbal pastry-insulated moxibustion (HPIM), 4 on warming needle moxibustion (WNM), 3 on acupoint injection, 2 on laser exposure, 1 on intradermal imbedding needle, and 1 on needle-knife. (3) characteristics of AM: manual acupuncture focuses on the manipulation of reinforcement or reduction by inserting/lifting or twisting in different directions, based on pathopattern differentiation (deficiency or repletion). Electro-acupuncture, which is supposed to have no difference on reinforcement/reduction, mostly choose dilatational wave at a frequency between 2~100Hz, with around 30minutes needle-retainment and 30 sessions for the whole treatment; mild moxibustion takes around 10 minutes for each session on each acupoint; HPIM usually takes 3 to 5 cones for each session on each acupoint; WNM usually takes 30 minutes for each session, by being administered every day or every other day, for total 30 session.

Conclusion: Currently the major used AM methods for HLP are manual acupuncture, electro-acupuncture and mild moxibustion. By turns they pay more attention on reinforcement/reduction, wave form and frequency, and dosage of moxibustion, respectively.

Open access
The Predictive Value of On-treatment Virological Response for Sustained Virological Response in Chronic Hepatitis C Patients Receiving a Personalized Treatment Program

Abstract

Objective To investigate the effects of individualised treatment with peginterferon alpha-2a (40 kD) plus ribavirin in Chinese patients with CHC.

Methods Total of 297 consecutive Chinese patients were enrolled, including 250 naïve cases and 47 cases who were previously treated. Treatment duration was determined according to viral genotypes, prior treatment history and viral responses at week 4, 12 and 24.

Results Totally, 235 patients (79.1%) completed treatment and 186 (87.3%) achieved SVR. And 219 out of 289 (75.8%) patients achieved HCV RNA negative at week 4 (RVR) and 259 of 276 (93.8%) at week 12. Among the 164 patients with RVR who completed follow-up, 158 (96.3%) achieved SVR. Patients with RVR had lower baseline viral loads than patients without RVR (P = 0.034). The positive predictive value (PPV) of RVR for SVR was 90.7% (OR 2.10 vs. non-RVR, 95% CI: 0.50 - 8.7). Similar outcomes were observed among patients with HCV undetectable at week 12.

Conclusions Complete viral suppression by week 4 is associated with a high rate of treatment success in treatment naïve and experienced patients receiving individualized CHC therapy.

Open access