This article studies the role of rainfall in determining the education composition of Mexico-US migration. Emphasizing the relationship between rainfall and migration costs, a revised Roy model indicates that rainfall affects selection on education through not only households’ liquidity constraints but also the comparisons between changes in migration costs and wage differentials at different levels of education. With retrospective data on the migration history of male Mexicans, the empirical analysis shows that the inverted U-shaped relationship between migration probabilities and education is less dispersed with a higher vertex when rainfall decreases, suggesting higher migration costs and reinforced self-selection patterns. The impacts of rainfall on selection and education are stronger for the migrant stock than for migration flows. Studying how rainfall influences migrants’ return decisions provides consistent results.
In order to keep the confidential data in the cloud against unauthorized parties, a cryptographic access control solution based on Attribute-Based Encryption (ABE) and Identity-Based Signature (IBS) is introduced in this paper. Under the premise that cloud service provider is untrustful, the proposed scheme can ensure the data security of the cloud storage system in an open environment, as well as reduce the complexity of management. Analysis and experimental results show that the scheme can be semantically secure against adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks under the random oracle model. Our concrete access control scheme can enhance the efficiency of the cloud to a certain extent.
A wideband transition from the coaxial TEM mode to the TM01 mode of the circular waveguide with in-line input-output architecture is proposed in this paper. The transition employs multi-stage stepped impedance transformer to achieve wideband responses. Both mode transition and impedance matching characteristics are discussed in the paper. A demonstrator is developed and validated experimentally. As compared with some recently published reports, a better performance is observed. Moreover, the developed transition could facilitate the mechanical fabrication more easily. It can be found wide applications such as the circular waveguide based slot array antenna, the nondestructive detection, cracks inside the conductive pipes, and so on.
No existing studies of badminton technique have used full-body biomechanical modeling based on three-dimensional (3D) motion capture to quantify the kinematics of the sport. The purposes of the current study were to: 1) quantitatively describe kinematic characteristics of the forehand smash using a 15-segment, full-body biomechanical model, 2) examine and compare kinematic differences between novice and skilled players with a focus on trunk rotation (the X-factor), and 3) through this comparison, identify principal parameters that contributed to the quality of the skill. Together, these findings have the potential to assist coaches and players in the teaching and learning of the forehand smash. Twenty-four participants were divided into two groups (novice, n = 10 and skilled, n = 14). A 10-camera VICON MX40 motion capture system (200 frames/s) was used to quantify full-body kinematics, racket movement and the flight of the shuttlecock. Results confirmed that skilled players utilized more trunk rotation than novices. In two ways, trunk rotation (the X-factor) was shown to be vital for maximizing the release speed of the shuttlecock – an important measure of the quality of the forehand smash. First, more trunk rotation invoked greater lengthening in the pectoralis major (PM) during the preparation phase of the stroke which helped generate an explosive muscle contraction. Second, larger range of motion (ROM) induced by trunk rotation facilitated a whip-like (proximal to distal) control sequence among the body segments responsible for increasing racket speed. These results suggest that training intended to increase the efficacy of this skill needs to focus on how the X-factor is incorporated into the kinematic chain of the arm and the racket.
An improved feedline configuration for dual-mode resonator filter is investigated in this paper. Based on the introduced topology, a dual-mode dual-band bandpass filter with center frequencies of 1.8 and 2.4 GHz is optimally designed, fabricated and tested. The introduced dual-band bandpass filter has simple structure and enables high selectivity to be realized due to two pairs of transmission zeros located near to the lower and upper passband, respectively. Both measured and simulated performances are presented with good consistency.
Morroniside is one of the most important iridoid glycosides from Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. In the present study, the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability studies of morroniside were conducted on Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. A rat in situ intestinal perfusion model was used to characterize the absorption of morroniside. Caco-2 cells were used to examine the transport mechanisms of morroniside. The pharmacokinetic study of morroniside exhibited linear dose-proportional pharmacokinetic characteristics and low bioavailability (4.3 %) in SD rats. Its average Peff value for transport across the small intestinal segments changed from (3.09 ± 2.03) × 10−6 to (4.53 ± 0.94) × 10−6 cm s−1. In Caco-2 cells, the Papp values ranged from (1.61 ± 0.53) × 10−9 to (1.19 ± 0.22) × 10−7 cm s−1 for the apical to basolateral side and the Pratio values at three concentrations were all lower than 1.2. Morroniside showed poor absorption and it might not be a specific substrate of P-glycoprotein (P-gp).
Investigating disengagement is a continuing concern within computer-based learning environments. Drawing upon several strands of research into preservice teacher learning with network-based tutors, this paper outlines an object orientation to conceptualize a type of disengaged behaviour referred to as carelessness. We further differentiate this construct in terms of carelessness towards one’s own learning as opposed to other’s learning. In support of our claims, we review research into carelessness in the context of nBrowser, an intelligent web browser designed to support preservice teachers learn about the pedagogical affordances of novel technologies while designing lesson plans. The key aspects of this research can be listed as follows: (1) a knowledge engineering approach to implement a set of production rules within the learning environment to detect instances of carelessness and intervene; (2) a data-driven approach to infer learner behaviours in their absence due to carelessness; and (3) a model-driven approach to improve the functioning of the learning environment despite instances of carelessness. We discuss the limitations of these different approaches and draw implications for future research into preservice teacher disengagement with computer-based learning environments.
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of hydrogen on the therapy of onion poisoned dogs.
Material and Methods: A total of 16 adult beagle dogs were divided into two groups (control and hydrogen) and all were fed dehydrated onion powder at the dose of 10 g/kg for three days. The dogs of the experimental group were given subcutaneous injection of 0.2 mL/kg of hydrogen for 12 days after making the poisoned model successful. Blood samples were collected before feeding onions, one day before injecting hydrogen, and 2 h after the injection of hydrogen on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9, and 12. Control dogs were not treated with hydrogen.
Results: The levels of leukocyte production, anaemia, red blood cell degeneration which was reflected by the values of Heinz body count, haemolytic ratio, and oxidative products in hydrogen treated group were lower than in control dogs on some days. The capacity of medullary haematopoiesis that was based on reticulocyte counts, and the antioxidation in hydrogen group were higher compared with control group. However, the differences in renal function were not obvious in both groups.
Conclusion: Accordingly, it was concluded that subcutaneous injection of hydrogen could alleviate the symptoms in onion poisoned dogs.
Serological diagnosis of brucellosis is still a great challenge due to the infeasibility of discriminating infected animals from vaccinated ones, so it is necessary to search for diagnostic biomarkers for differential diagnosis of brucellosis.
Material and Methods
Cell division cycle 42 (Cdc42) from sheep (Ovis aries) (OaCdc42) was cloned by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and then tissue distribution and differential expression levels of OaCdc42 mRNA between infected and vaccinated sheep were analysed by RT-qPCR.
The full-length cDNA of OaCdc42 was 1,609 bp containing an open reading frame (ORF) of 576 bp. OaCdc42 mRNAs were detected in the heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidneys, rumen, small intestine, skeletal muscles, and buffy coat, and the highest expression was detected in the small intestine. Compared to the control, the levels of OaCdc42 mRNA from sheep infected with Brucella melitensis or sheep vaccinated with Brucella suis S2 was significantly different (P < 0.01) after 40 and 30 days post-inoculation, respectively. However, the expression of OaCdc42 mRNA was significantly different between vaccinated and infected sheep (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) on days: 14, 30, and 60 post-inoculation, whereas no significant difference (P > 0.05) was noted 40 days post-inoculation. Moreover, the expression of OaCdc42 from both infected and vaccinated sheep showed irregularity.
OaCdc42 is not a good potential diagnostic biomarker for differential diagnosis of brucellosis in sheep.
Background. To determine the role of postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in breast cancer patients with T1-2 and N1 disease.
Patients and methods. A total of 207 postmastectomy women were enrolled. The 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of locoregional recurrence rate (LRR), distant recurrence rate (DRR) and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by different tumor characteristics. Multivariate analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazards modeling.
Results. With median follow-up 59.5 months, the 5-year LRR, DRR and OS were 9.1%, 20.3% and 84.4%, respectively. On univariate analysis, age < 40 years old (p = 0.003) and Her-2/neu over-expression (p = 0.016) were associated with higher LRR, whereas presence of LVI significantly predicted higher DRR (p = 0.026). Negative estrogen status (p = 0.033), Her-2/neu overexpression (p = 0.001) and LVI (p = 0.01) were significantly correlated with worse OS. PMRT didn’t prove to reduce 5-year LRR (p = 0.107), as well as 5-year OS (p = 0.918). In subgroup analysis, PMRT showed significant benefits of improvement LRR and OS in patients with positive LVI.
Conclusions. For patients with T1-2 and N1 stage breast cancer, PMRT can decrease locoregional recurrence and increase overall survival only in patients with lymphovascular invasion.