Bangladeshi construction industry suffers more safety issues than other developing countries in the world. Among many of these, accidents at the construction site go far beyond and shape a horrific figure of death every year. The aims of this study are to identify and prioritize the causes of accidents. This study also analyses and discusses causes of accident at the construction site in Bangladesh. A widespread literature review and open discussion took place to identify the causes and design the questionnaire. The questionnaire-based survey was used to elicit the attitude of four stakeholders such as workers, owners, consultants and contractors towards the causes of accident. Mean and relative importance index (RII) were used to determine the rank of causes, and Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 23 was used to perform the data validation test. This study identifies 77 causes under 14 major groups and ranked them based on the mean and RII. The top five major groups of causes are management-, consultant-, technology-, labour- and contractor-related causes. The top five causes are unawareness of safety-related issue, lack of personal protective equipment, lack of safety eliminating/avoiding design, unfit equipment, lack of knowledge and training on equipment. This study will help the project participants and authorities to know and understand the various characteristics and linkage of causes of construction accidents to improve the construction safety management. It contributes to the body of knowledge, as it reveals for the first time the causes of acci dents in the Bangladeshi construction industry.
Augmented reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR), a kingdom-of-the-art technology for superimposing information onto the real world, have recently started to have an effect on our everyday lives. In addition, AR and VR have shown a great contribution to advanced construction management in recent years. However, a comprehensive critical review of AR and VR technologies in construction management is absent in the literature. This study provides a comprehensive review of a summary of using potential opportunities of AR and VR to solve a variety of construction management issues effectively and efficiently. This study found that AR is successfully used in construction project scheduling, progress tracking, worker training, safety management, time and cost management, and quality and defects management. VR is effectively used as a visualization tool, worker training technology, safety management tool, and quality and defects management tool. In addition, AR and VR are used for developing a network that allows the possibility of having conferences with those who are geographically far off from each other or the construction site. This study could help to explore the potential fields of using AR and VR technologies in the construction industry effectively as advance time- and cost-saving profitable tools.