Zohra Nazir Kayani, Maryam Iqbal, Saira Riaz, Rehana Zia and Shahzad Naseem
ZnO thin films were deposited on a glass substrate by dip coating technique using a solution of zinc acetate, ethanol and distilled water. Optical constants, such as refractive index n and extinction coefficient k. were determined from transmittance spectrum in the ultraviolet-visible-near infrared (UV-Vis-NIR) regions using envelope methods. The films were found to exhibit high transmittance, low absorbance and low reflectance in the visible regions. Absorption coefficient α and the thickness of the film t were calculated from interference of transmittance spectra. The direct optical band gap of the films was in the range of 3.98 to 3.54 eV and the thickness of the films was evaluated in the range of 173 to 323 nm, while the refractive index slightly varied in the range of 1.515 to 1.622 with an increase in withdrawal speed from 100 to 250 mm/s. The crystallographic structure of the films was analyzed with X-ray diffractometer. The films were amorphous in nature.
Zohra Nazir Kayani, Mahek Zaheen Butt, Saira Riaz and Shahzad Naseem
NiO nanoparticles were fabricated by sol-gel route using ammonium hydroxide and nickel nitrate as precursors. The NiO nanoparticles were calcinated at 400 °C and 1000 °C. The nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), thermogravimetry analysis/differential thermal analysis (TGA/DTA). The structural properties were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD). XRD confirmed the formation of well-crystallized and high purity NiO phase. The XRD showed that the peaks were sharpened and the crystallite size increased as the calcination temperature increased. The average crystallite size ranged from 12 nm to 20 nm, when calcined at temperatures 400 °C and 1000 °C, respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) revealed the chemical composition and confirmed the formation of NiO nanoparticles. The nanoparticles showed paramagnetic behavior.