The business environment is reshaped by knowledge economy which has taken both competitiveness and doing business to a whole new level. Because knowledge economy plays a key role in the creation of welfare it has been classified as an important reliable indicator for comparing world’s economies. The present paper highlights the geographic distribution of knowledge economy at the level of the European Union by means of factorial analysis. Factor analysis, a well-known statistical clustering technique, has been applied on the 28 EU countries (seen in our study as random variables) with an a priori fixed number of two factors. On each variable, the realisations are given by the scores (normalized between 0 and 1) registered for year 2012 on 12 key Knowledge Economy (KE) indices. The resulting factor structure is compared to the standard geographical grouping of EU countries (NorthWest-SouthEast) in present KE literature. SPSS software has been used for the statistical analysis. The highest correlations attained were in terms of the Global Competitiveness Index, World Happiness Index, R&D expenses signifying that they could also act as predictors in evaluating the status of the knowledge economy of a particular country, whereas weaker correlations can be spotted for enterprises selling online, electric energy consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and others. In the future, the same relationship can be tested to see whether the influences have changed, in the light of new available data.
After conducting an extensive analysis of both the specialised literature and practice and identifying three types of corporate social entrepreneurship in my PhD thesis titled “Corporate social entrepreneurship - the new paradigm of reshaping and rethinking business”, I decided to determine which of the three approaches is mostly suited for the Romanian market. The three types of corporate social entrepreneurship: corporate social entrepreneurship as local development tool, corporate social entrepreneurship as market development tool, and corporate social entrepreneurship as transformational innovation tool were organised as the alternatives of a carefully constructed hierarchy having as criteria: return on investment (which does not necessarily refer to the money that the company invests in the strategy; the term is derived from sustainability and scalability), degree of novelty, pre-entry knowledge and interest in solving the communities’ social problems. The questionnaire constructed based on the hierarchy using analytic hierarchy processes was distributed to experts (business developers) coming from the following industries or sectors: beverages, IT, banking, furniture, and automotive. The research reveals which is the approach most likely to be employed by Romanian business developers. The results may be inferred to the sum of businesses represented by the expert business developers who were part of the research.
The main specific objective of this paper is to explore the content of research as well as methodological issues on social entrepreneurship in the context of corporate social economics and entrepreneurship. Therefore, in order to obtain an overview of the research done on this theme, we conducted a literature review using the exploratory analysis as methodology. We focused on the studies and articles which were published in the most important academic periodicals that cover subjects as management, economics and business. The articles were identified based on the presence of selected keywords in their title, abstract and body of the article: ‘social entrepreneur’, ‘social enterprise’, ‘social entrepreneurship’, ‘corporate social entrepreneurship’ and ‘social economy’. Using this method, there were selected articles and studies published starting from the last decade of the 1990s up to 2015. We were also interested in international publications on the topic and also in books that approached social entrepreneurship.
The present paper delves into the specifics of knowledge economy with a particular focus on Romania. In the first part, it identifies knowledge economy characteristics and pillars and it analyses them as compared to levels exhibited by countries in the European Union. In the second part it argues for the strategies that could be used for enhancing knowledge economy in Romania. In order to do so we used the Delphi method and we identified 25 experts in the knowledge economy/management field coming from internationally renowned companies, universities and ministries located in Romania, to whom we sent invitations for participating in our Delphi survey that lasted one month. Out of the 25 experts, 10 answered positively and during the research we had an attrition rate of 90%. The experts delivered their opinions on the measures to be adopted in order to increase education and learning, ICT and innovation as building blocks of knowledge economy. Findings reveals that knowledge economy can be developed by adopting measures such as: devising a governmental program that will sustain the development of knowledge repositories at the level of technological clusters, industry associations and other professional organizations by providing financial assistance for hardware acquisition and software development in order to facilitate knowledge transfer; Governmental program for the financial support of schools’ investments in hardware and educational software and the training of staff for the use of ITC in teaching and learning, etc.
We present a critical perspective of the current state of development of CSE and SI as fields of study and practice based on a geographical and conceptual mapping of the actors involved in the two fields. Although these concepts are set into motion by different forces on different paths, they converge towards a common apprehension of social business. CSE has no supporting core and it offers scarce and scattered resources for identity formation, while SI benefits from practitioners’ attention and is thus developing as a proper field of study. Using this knowledge we anticipate what the future holds for these concepts and offer valuable insights for interested practitioners and academics.
For more than three decades now, famous and relatively famous theoreticians from around the world and from Romania having different specialisations and statuses within society (from economists who work in universities and research centres to those involved in political decisions, from anthropologists to sociologists, from political analysts to jurists) and also practitioners that have transposed their ideas into reality by creating their own small or medium enterprises which support their roles within both the national and international economies. Additionally, statistics, be them undertaken by international organisations such as UNO or the EU or other national institutes reveal the ever increasing share of SMEs within the GDP, employment, turnover and the list may continue. The concern of policy makers of encouraging the development of entrepreneurship is manifested both in the legislative and financial frameworks by granting tax exemptions to those starting a business, by awarding them financing under certain conditions or by fostering the possibility of their accessing various European funds. This article seeks to provide the necessary support to the persons/entities that would or should take the necessary steps in order to define the job of the entrepreneur or undertaker in the economic field in general and not particularly in the construction field making a review of the current entrepreneurial phenomenon in Romania and analysing the opinions of different entrepreneurs with respect to the requirements of the jobs they have. Purposively, we designed and distributed a questionnaire in Bucharest. The number of valid responses is 47 and even if the sample is not representative, we consider the findings a step forward to defining the entrepreneur job.
We have arrived to a moment in history when the society we are living in is confronted with different sets of problems: hunger, crime, economic crises, natural disasters or cataclysms, and various human rights violations. At the moment the most appropriate way to solve these problems still lies with the organisms of the nation state. As such, the lack of civic sense and the increasing political apathy will only allow these problems to grow out of proportions. We are of the opinion that most of them can be counteracted if we try to educate the civic sense in people. By civic sense or engagement we understand a type of orientation towards being involved in social groups according to democratic principles. It is said the post-socialist countries are particularly threatened by the lack of civic engagement on behalf of their citizens that have reached the point where they take democracy for granted. This is why we explore the role played by universities in developing and shaping this civic attitude amongst young people. In order to do so, we resorted to questionnaires applied in liberal arts universities in Romania. These universities have a special relation to democratic principles, national pride and the perpetuation of the nation state as an ideal for its citizens and because of this we believe they represent a proper starting point for the current investigation. The areas that are targeted through the questionnaire are the following: the academic environment, the methods through which civic values are instilled in the hearts and minds of the students, and the institutional and personal factors that determine faculty to introduce civic values in their academic environments. Using the results we create the Civic Engagement Index (CEI) that can be used as a valuable benchmarking mechanism for those universities that are trying to enhance their civic engagement activities. Finally, we test the hypothesis that certain universities fail to create civic-oriented graduates and we propose ways in which the organizational culture could be transformed into a more supportive one: civic participation guides, civic responsibility classes, and service learning classes for faculty members to increase their openness towards the promotion of civic values.
Alina Mihaela Dima, Shahrazad Hadad and Iulia Luchian
The present paper is concerned with identifying and synthesizing the directions of development of the partnerships between the academic environment and the business environment found in main research dedicated articles in the last five years in three relevant databases: Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge, Science Direct and PROQUEST Central. The method we employed consists in tertiary data selection, processing and filtering by means of adequate software. The thorough literature review on partnerships between the academic and business environments revealed eight main directions of development: sponsoring activities, collaborative research (research partnerships and research services), curriculum development and delivery, academic entrepreneurship, human resource transfer (mobility of academics, mobility of students), informal interaction, commercialization of property right, and scientific publications. In order to qualify the directions of the partnerships we analysed their definitions, identified their goals and the economic and social impacts that they had.