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Nida Baig, Shahbaz Khan, Naeem Gul Gilal and Abdul Qayyum

Abstract

This article strives to work out the causal relationship between natural disasters and economic growth in Pakistan. The study empirically tests the linkage using econometric techniques autoregressive distributed lag bound model by Pesaran (2001) and Granger causality test. We develop a proxy for the loss of natural disasters by a similar method as Noy (2009) and Bergholt et.al, (2012) did. The results of ARDL bounds testing approach evidence a negative long run relationship between the proxies of natural disasters and economic growth. The results of Granger Causality depict the uni-directional causality from natural disasters to economic growth both in short-run and long-run. Overall, the study determines that natural disasters deteriorate economic growth in Pakistan. This is the first study in Pakistan to assess the causal relationship among natural disasters and economic growth. So, further empirical evidence may link natural disasters to microeconomics and financial indicators. In future, researchers might control the impact of foreign development aid, remittances, political stability and country’s corruption rating. Natural disasters are an alarming issue and, addressing the questions related to their impacts on welfare of human being and economic growth of the countries contain significant importance in order to attract the attention of global development agencies and policymakers. As per INFORM (2015) risk index, Pakistan has the highest vulnerability towards natural disasters after Afghanistan. So, the study contains more significant value in context of Pakistan.

Open access

Bushra Siddiqui, Divya Rabindranath, Shahbaz Habib Faridi, Azka Anees Khan, Sadaf Haiyat and Rabindranath Eswaran

Abstract

Objective: The objective was to study megaloblastic anemia as a cause of pyrexia of unknown origin (PUO). Materials and Methods: We conducted a study on 15 patients of megaloblastic anemia associated with fever, attending our hospital clinics over a period of 6 months. Results: While 11 patients had symptoms suggesting foci of infection and responded well to intravenous antibiotics, 4 patients had neither any evidence of infection nor responded with empirical broad spectrum antibiotic treatment. They were treated with vitamin B12/folate therapy which led to marked improvement in fever within 48 h. Presenting complaints of the patients and severity/duration of fever along with other epidemiological data were also studied in each case. Conclusion: The present study led us to conclude that megaloblastic anemia forms an important and reversible cause of fever and should be ruled out in all patients presenting with PUO. This knowledge would help the physicians in adequate and timely management of these patients.