This study tries to investigate project success through inclusive leadership role along with self-efficacy. Data sets were collected using adopted questionnaires of previous studies from employees working on the metro bus project, their supervisors and passengers of metro bus service from Rawalpindi to Islamabad route in Pakistan. This study is measuring the effects of inclusive leadership on project success through self-efficacy which makes it causal in nature. The time lag data collection method was adopted. In order to reach correct findings, potential biases were controlled by theoretical and statistical controls. Exploratory factor analysis was used to test structural modelling, average variance and composite reliabilities using Smart PLS. SPSS 21.0 was used for regression analysis, bias correction measures were also considered. The study revealed that inclusive leadership is associated in a positive manner with project success. The mediating role of self-efficacy in the relationship of inclusive leadership and project success was also supported. In addition, theoretical and practical implications in the context of this study are discussed in detail.
As an extension of the class of half condensed domains introduced by D.D. Anderson and Dumitrescu, we introduce and study the class of almost condensed domains. An integral domain D is almost condensed if whenever 0≠ z ∈ IJ with I; J ideals of D, there exist I′ ; J′ ideals of D such that I′ ⊆ Iw, J′ ⊆ Jw and zD = (I′ J′ )w.
In the present work a systematic study was carried out to understand the influence of Sc doping on electronic and optical properties of CdS nanoparticles. The geometry optimization and symmetry computation for CdS and Sc doped CdS nanoparticles using Density Functional Theory (DFT) on B3LYP level with the QZ4P for Cd and DZ2P for sulphur and Sc were performed by Amsterdam Density Functional (ADF). The results show that HOMO-LUMO gap as well as electronic and optical properties of CdS clusters vary with Sc doping. The HOMO-LUMO gap is affected by the dopant and its value decreases to 0.6 eV. Through considering the numerical integration scheme in the ADF package, we investigated different vibrational modes and our calculated Raman and IR spectra are consistent with the reported result. The calculated IR and Raman peaks of CdS and Sc doped CdS clusters were in the range of 100 to 289 cm−1, 60 cm−1 to 350 cm−1 and 99 cm−1 to 282 cm−1, 60 cm−1 to 350 cm−1, respectively, which was also confirmed by experiment as well as a blue shift occurrence. Subsequently, for deeper research of pure and doped CdS clusters, their absorption spectra were calculated using time-dependent DFT method.
The interplay between groups and graphs have been the most famous and productive area of algebraic graph theory. In this paper, we introduce and study the graphs whose vertex set is group G such that two distinct vertices a and b having di erent orders are adjacent provided that o(a) divides o(b) or o(b) divides o(a).