We studied the incidence and causes of transition disturbances in the first 30 minutes of life in full-term newborns. This one-year study was retrospective and included 1147 full- term live-born neonates without life-threatening congenital anomalies and surgical complications. They were divided into four groups: 0 (with normal transition), 1 (resuscitated without endotracheal intubation), and 2 (intubated); A (without underlying maternal, obstetric or fetal/neonatal problem, with adequate for GA eight and from single birth) and B (with one or more of following: underlying maternal, obstetric or fetal/neonatal problem, SGA or LGA, from multiple pregnancies).
Of the newborns, 9.1% of required resuscitation and 1.6% - extensive resuscitation with intubation. The groups significantly differed in the incidence of underlying maternal, obstetric, or fetal/neonatal problems. Resuscitated babies were born via Caesarean section (CS), in abnormal presentation (PaN) and by vacuum extraction or forceps (V/F) predominantly. The highest incidence of the small for gestational age (GA) babies – SGA, was detected in Group 2. Twins and large for GA (LGA) had prevalence in Group 1. Resuscitation was necessary for 18.1% of CS-delivered babies. V/F and PaN lead to the highest need for intubation. According to our data, every 10th of the full-term neonates required assistance in the fetal-to-neonatal transition. The causes could be diseases of the mother or fetus/newborn, multiple births, SGA, or LGA. A compromised medical decision about the time and way of delivery may result in iatrogenic transition disturbances.