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  • Author: Servet Birgin İritaş x
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The effects of occupational lead exposure on selected inflammatory biomarkers


In exposure to toxic metals such as lead, determining lead and cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α) is essential for early detection of diseases. The aim of this study was to develop an model for early detection of inflammation and onset of atherosclerosis in the absence of clinical findings in young workers, which could help physicians take timely an action and start treatment. This study included 49 metal workers exposed to lead occupationally and 50 unexposed administrative workers (controls) who underwent immunological analysis for cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α) and atherosclerosis markers (h-FABP and VCAM-1), toxicological analysis for lead, and routine biochemical analysis (ALT, AST, creatinine) at the Ankara Occupational and Environmental Diseases Hospital in 2017. Lead levels correlated with IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α (r=0.469, r=0.521 and r=0.279, respectively, p<0.01) but did not significantly affect h-FABP and VCAM-1 levels.

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TNF-α and IL-6 as biomarkers of impaired lung functions in dimethylacetamide exposure



Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are well-known biomarkers of systemic inflammation that have been associated with many diseases in the past. In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between impaired lung functions and the levels of these biomarkers in DMAc exposed people.


101 non-exposed control subjects (Group 1) and 109 DMAc-exposed workers from the polyvinyl chloride (PVC) industry were included in the study. In the next step, the exposed group was divided into two groups according to the level of exposure (Group 2 and 3). DMAc, TNF-α, IL-6, creatinine, ALT, AST, GFR and standard spirometry measurements were carried out in all subjects.


When compared to the control group, TNF-α and IL-6 levels were significantly high compatible with the increase of DMAc levels, in the exposed groups. Urinary DMAc Levels were 0.06 mg/L in the control group. This level is significantly low when compared to exposed and severely exposed group (2.43 mg/L and 3.17 mg/L). TNF-α levels were 56.86 pg/mL, 145.52 pg/mL and 230.52 pg/mL in control, exposed and severely exposed groups. IL-6 levels were found to be 38.08 pg/mL, 89.19 pg/mL and 116 pg/mL for control, exposed and severely exposed groups, respectively. Similarly, the FEV1/FVC ratio decreased especially in the severely exposed group (p 0.001).


In our study, results have revealed that TNF-and IL-6 levels are promising biomarkers in the early diagnosis of lung function impairment in inhalational DMAc exposure.

Open access