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  • Author: Septimiu Voidăzan x
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Introduction: Gallbladder hydrops is an increase in the volume of the gallbladder without any inflammatory sign, bacterial infection or the presence of any abnormalities of the biliary ducts or of the gallbladder.

Case presentation: A 52-year-old man presented at the Department of Internal Medicine complaining of moderate intensity pain in the right upper quadrant, low fever, fatigue, general weakness, symptoms stemming from an excessive intake of food (a meal abundant in animal proteins, fats, and alcohol) which appeared following a 6-week period of food restriction. On examination, the patient presented a globular abdomen, sensitive to deep palpation in the right upper quadrant, the liver and spleen being impalpable. Blood tests performed on admission showed liver-specific pathological changes. Abdominal ultrasound revealed hepatomegaly with homogeneous echostructure, slightly increased echogenicity with rear attenuation, with no focal images, intrahepatic biliary duct dilatation, or dilated suprahepatic veins. The gallbladder looked dropsical, with slender walls, with images of hyperechoic infundibular calculi with a posterior shadow cone, the largest having 14 mm. The portal vein and bile duct were normal in appearance.

Conclusions: Gallbladder hydrops is a disorder commonly seen in children. Its occurrence in adults is uncommon, moreover since it occurs simultaneously with an episode of acute toxic hepatitis. Surgery for this patient was possible only after normalization of liver function tests, on admission there being no subjective complaints of marked intensity that required immediate surgery.


Palliative care in Romania is a relatively new emerging field. Challenges of this specialty, its uniqueness and the several problems posed by a particular category of patients, the chronically ill patients, make this medical specialty a particularly complex one in certain situations, requiring a multidisciplinary team well-prepared in terms of theory and practice. Unlike in the case of most medical specialties, particular emphasis is laid on the “human” side of medical care, this specialty introducing the concept of “total pain”.


Background. Secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT) is frequently encountered in patients on hemodialysis (HD) for end stage renal disease (ESRD). In spite of improved medical therapy, parathyroidectomy is still frequentely indicated for patients with medically refractory secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism. The aim of this study is to analyse the impact of parathyroidectomy, regardless of the surgical procedure, on perioperative and follow-up clinical symptoms and biochemistry tests. Material and method. We studied 29 patients who underwent parathyroidectomy for sHPT due to ESRD, at the Second Department of Surgery, Emergency Mures County Hospital, between February 2010 and May 2013. Outcome parameters included symptoms relieving (bone pains, pruritus, etc) and laboratory data (intact parathyroid hormone (iPth), total calcium and phosphorus, serum alkaline phosphatase (AlkPhos), hematocrit and hemoglobin), assesed before, shortly after and then at short-medium term follow-up. Results. The majority of our patients had significant improvement of the symptoms during the follow-up period. The iPTH values considerably decreased after the operation. The postoperative calcemia mean value decreased and we have identified statistically significant differences between the monthly calcemia average values (p-0.008). The mean phosphorus level in the first 2 postoperative months decreased significantly (p-0.001) and we recorded statistically significant decreases (p-0.0007) in AlkPhos level after the operation. Both hematocit and hemoglobin levels experienced a statistical significant growth in the follow-up period. Persistent HPT was encountered in two patients (6.89%), and we had 8 patients who developed mild hypocalcaemia in the first month after the operation (“hungry bones” syndrome). We had few minor and transient postoperative complications and we did not encountered postoperative mortality in our series. Conclusions. Parathyroidectomy, regardless of the technical procedure, is feasible, safe and effective for patients with refractory secondary and tertiary hyperparathyroidism.


Background: During the acute inflammatory process, the CXCL13 chemokine plays an important role in B cell recruitment within the central nervous system (CNS).

Objective: The objective of the study consisted of the evaluation of CXCL13 chemokine cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and plasma levels in patients with acute infectious and non-infectious neurological diseases correlated with pleocytosis and CSF protein levels.

Material and method: This retrospective study was conducted over one year and included 72 patients. Thirty-eight patients (52.8%) suffering from infectious neurological disease, acute viral and bacterial meningitis, meningoencephalitis, and 34 patients (44.2%) diagnosed with non-infectious neurological diseases.

CXCL13 chemokine CSF and plasma levels were determined through the ELISA technique with the Human CXCL13/BLC/BCA-1 kit. CSF cell count, glucose and protein levels, along with anti-Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies were monitored using the ELISA technique.

Results: CXCL13 chemokine levels in the CSF of patients with acute infectious neurological diseases showed a median value of 23.07 pg/mL, which was significantly higher in comparison with the median value of 11.5 pg/mL of patients with noninfectious neurological diseases (p-0.03). CXCL13 median plasma concentration in patients with infectious neurological diseases was 108.1 pg/mL, in comparison with the second patient category, 50.7 pg/ml (p-0.001). We observed a statistically significant association between CXCL13 concentrations, CSF cell count and proteins. The higher the CXCL13 chemokine level, the more increased the cell count was.

Conclusions: CXCL13 levels in the CSF was significantly increased in patients with acute infectious neurological diseases compared with patients with non-infectious diseases. Moreover, CXCL13 chemokine concentration was significantly correlated with the number of cells and proteins in the CSF of patients suffering from neuroinfections.


Background: Although the clinical evolution of a patient with heart failure is initially improved by transplantation, a number of potential complications may occur in the post-transplant period, which may be directly related to the effects of chronic immunosuppression. The purpose of this study was to analyze the occurrence and frequency of post-transplant complications related to immunosuppressive treatment in the Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases and Transplantation of Târgu Mureș, Romania.

Material and methods: This is a descriptive study including 53 patients out of a total of 71 patients who underwent cardiac transplantation between 2000 and 2017 in the Institute of Cardiovascular Disease and Cardiac Transplantation in Târgu Mureș, Romania. Data were collected from the patient files and included demographic, clinical and laboratory data, as well as information about post-transplant complications related to immunosuppressive treatment.

Results: The mean age of patients undergoing heart transplantation was 40.72 ± 14.07 years, the majority of patients being male (84.91%) and living in an urban environment (56.60%). The average length of hospital stay was 33.6 days. From the total number of patients, 7 (13.2%) presented post-transplantation bacterial infections, while antibodies indicating the presence or history of B hepatitis, toxoplasma, and cytomegalovirus infection were identified with a relatively high incidence in the study population.

Conclusions: Infections following surgery are probably the most common post-transplant pathology, the primary reason being the administration of immunosuppressive medication.


Objective: In patients with critical limb ischemia who undergone revascularization procedures, the assessment of risk factors that may affect the postoperative outcome is of great importance. The main objective in this study is to assess the utility of two specific risk scores, the Finnvasc score and the modified Prevent III score.

Methods: We evaluated the applicability of these two risk scores in 150 patients who undergone an unilateral infrainguinal surgical revascularization procedure. The receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to estimate the predictive value of the scoring methods. A comparison between the risk scores, determine the areas under the curve. Medium-term prediction ability was analyzed for both scoring methods.

Results: The area under the curve of Finnvasc score for predicting amputation was 0.739 (95%CI:0.661-0.807) and of the modified PIII score 0.713 (95%CI:0.633-0.784); for restenosis we obtained 0.528 (95%CI:0.444-0.611), respectively 0.529 (95%CI:0.445-0.612) and for thrombosis 0.628 (95%CI:0.544-0.706) and 0.556 (95%CI:0.472-0.638), demonstrating that the Finnvasc score performs better in overall prediction. Heart failure is a strong independent predictor of amputation (p=0.0001, OR=26.90; 95%CI:5.81-124.2), restenosis (p=0.0003, OR=4.80; 95%CI:1.96-11.8) and mortality (p=0.01, OR=7.16; 95%CI:1.33-38.52).

Conclusions: The accuracy of the two risk scoring methods in predicting the medium-term outcome of patients undergoing surgical infrainguinal revascularization is acceptable. The Finnvasc score is easier to be applied to the characteristics of our patients.


Background. The study aimed to evaluate the correlations of cognitive function with metabolic, nutritional, hormonal and immunologic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), in order to identify markers of cognitive impairment.

Material and methods. This cross-sectional study included 216 T2D patients and 23 healthy individuals (HC). The cognitive status was evaluated by the MoCA test. From HC and 145 T2D patients several parameters were also determined: C-peptide, vitamin B12, high-sensitivity CRP (by chemiluminescent immunometric assay), HbA1c, lipids, cortisol, TSH, Mg (by a Cobas 6000 analyzer), glucose (by glucose-oxidase method) and leptin and adiponectin (by ELISA method). Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05.

Results. There was a significant difference in the MoCA scores between HC and T2D groups (26.0(17.0-29.0) vs. 23.0(13.0- 31.0) points; p: 0.004). T2D patients with cognitive dysfunction were significantly older and less formally educated (p < 0.0001). Age negatively correlated with MoCA scores (-0.31; 95%CI:-0.42,-0.18; p < 0.0001). T2D patients had significantly lower visuospatial/executive (4.0(0.0-5.0) vs. 5.0(2.0-5.0) points; p: 0.04) and delayed recall scores (2.0(0.0- 5.0) vs. 3.0(1.0-5.0) points; p: 0.03) and lower serum Mg concentrations (0.81(0.12-0.99) vs. 0.92(0.41-1.35) mmol/l, p < 0.0001). Serum Mg levels positively correlated with MoCA scores (0.24, 95%CI: 0.07, 0.39; p: 0.003) and with visuospatial/ executive (0.30; 95%CI: 0.14, 0.45; p: 0.0002) and naming functions (0.18; 95%CI: 0.01, 0.34; p: 0.02).

Conclusions. Patients with T2D had significant cognitive impairment, with decrements in the visuospatial/executive and delayed recall domains. Younger age and higher education correlated with better cognitive function. Serum Mg levels correlated positively with overall cognitive function and with visuospatial/executive and naming domains.