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  • Author: Seok-Jin Kang x
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JeongWoo Kang, Md Akil Hossain, Byungkook Choi, Joon-Hyoung Cho, Seok-Jin Kang, Hyun-Ok Ku, Sang-Hee Jeong and Hwan-Goo Kang


Introduction: Veterinarians use flumequine (FLU) widely but its toxicological effects are still unclear.

Material and Methods: FLU doses of 53, 200, or 750 mg/kg were administered orally for six weeks to pubertal male rats for evaluation of their toxicity.

Results: Weight gain was poorer after seven days of exposure to FLU 750, but relative weights of the brain, adrenal and thyroid glands, and testes were notably higher. Haematological and lipid profile parameters, cardiac markers, and inorganic phosphate significantly increased in the FLU 750 group. Blood glucose, oestradiol and serum concentrations of immunoglobulins G (IgG) and E (IgE) significantly decreased after treatment. The levels of interleukins 10 (IL-10) and 6 (IL-6) fell significantly in the FLU 200 and FLU 750 groups. Cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 (CYP1A1) and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) expression amplified after treatment. Serum levels of free triiodothyronine (fT3) and free thyroxine (fT4) reduced in the FLU 200 and FLU 750 groups without changes in total T3 or T4 level. All doses of FLU significantly depressed concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and testosterone. Histopathology of thyroid glands from rats treated with FLU 750 showed degeneration and depletion of thyroid follicular epithelial cells. Expression of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was increased in a dose-dependent manner in the brain, but decreased in the testes. Expression of CYP1A1 increased in the adrenal and pituitary glands.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the toxicity of FLU in rats is an effect of its disruptive influence on the pituitary-thyroid hormonal system and on the dysfunction of the immune system.

Open access

Eun-Ha Moon, Seok Tae Lim, Yeon-Hee Han, Young Jin Jeong, Yun-Hee Kang, Hwan-Jeong Jeong and Myung-Hee Sohn


Background. The objective of the study was to compare the diagnostic efficacy of an integrated Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) PET/CT-mammography (mammo-PET/CT) with conventional torso PET/CT (supine-PET/CT) and MR-mammography for initial assessment of breast cancer patients.

Patients and methods. Forty women (52.0 ± 12.0 years) with breast cancer who underwent supine-PET/CT, mammo- PET/CT, and MR-mammography from April 2009 to August 2009 were enrolled in the study. We compared the size of the tumour, tumour to chest wall distance, tumour to skin distance, volume of axillary fossa, and number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes between supine-PET/CT and mammo-PET/CT. Next, we assessed the difference of focality of primary breast tumour and tumour size in mammo-PET/CT and MR-mammography. Histopathologic findings served as the standard of reference.

Results. In the comparison between supine-PET/CT and mammo-PET/CT, significant differences were found in the tumour size (supine-PET/CT: 1.3 ± 0.6 cm, mammo-PET/CT: 1.5 ± 0.6 cm, p < 0.001), tumour to thoracic wall distance (1.8 ± 0.9 cm, 2.2 ± 2.1 cm, p < 0.001), and tumour to skin distance (1.5 ± 0.8 cm, 2.1 ± 1.4 cm, p < 0.001). The volume of axillary fossa was significantly wider in mammo-PET/CT than supine-PET/CT (21.7 ± 8.7 cm3 vs. 23.4 ± 10.4 cm3, p = 0.03). Mammo-PET/CT provided more correct definition of the T-stage of the primary tumour than did supine-PET/ CT (72.5% vs. 67.5%). No significant difference was found in the number of metastatic axillary lymph nodes. Compared with MR-mammography, mammo-PET/CT provided more correct classification of the focality of lesion than did MR-mammography (95% vs. 90%). In the T-stage, 72.5% of cases with mammo-PET/CT and 70% of cases with MRmammography showed correspondence with pathologic results.

Conclusions. Mammo-PET/CT provided more correct definition of the T-stage and evaluation of axillary fossa may also be delineated more clearly than with supine-PET/CT. The initial assessment of mammo-PET/CT would be more useful than MR-mammography because the mammo-PET/CT indicates similar accuracy with MR-mammography for decision of T-stage of primary breast tumour and more correct than MR-mammography for defining focality of lesion.