Propolis is a natural resinous substance collected by honey bees from buds and exudates of plant species, mixed with bee enzymes, pollen and wax. It has a complex composition with a wide range of effects, including antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antiflogistic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, carcinostatic and immunomodulatory properties. It is often applied in the treatment of diseases involving the oral cavity and gums. The aim of this paper is to describe the therapeutic properties of propolis, chemical composition and its application in the oral cavity. Literature and systematic information on the composition and the effects of propolis on health were collected, with particular reference to the use in the treatment of oral cavity diseases. The chemical composition of propolis is very complex. The health impact depends on the biologically active components it contains. A particularly important application is in the treatment of diseases of the oral cavity. Studies show that propolis can help prevent dental caries and control gingivitis and plaque. It reduces halithosis (bad breath) and symptoms of periodontosis. It is also effective in fighting viruses. It can have significant application in orthodontics and restorative dentistry. A wide range of effects allows the multiple uses of propolis-based products. Recent research has been increasingly focused on diseases of the oral cavity. The development of novel propolis-based pharmaceutical forms could significantly reduce the use of antibiotics in conventional treatment of diseases of the oral cavity.