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Sebastian Tranca, Robert Szabo, Cătălin Dache and Mihai Mureșan

Abstract

The helicopter, as a means of transport, has facilitated a significant decrease in intervention time at the site of request, increasing the chances of survival of the critical patient. Since 2003, SMURD has managed to form a fleet composed of nine helicopters and two airplanes. From an operational and strategic point of view, the SMURD intervention unit, set up seven Aeromedical Operational Bases (A.O.B.) equipped with helicopters and materials necessary for their operation. There is a dynamic increase in the number of air rescue missions in Romania, with most missions being carried out by the air rescue bases in Târgu Mureş and Bucharest. Specialty literature has clearly demonstrated the positive impact on the survival of critical patients assisted by airborne crews, so it is necessary for the Romanian air rescue system to grow up. It is necessary to increase the number of air bases, purchase new helicopters and to continue the training programs of both pilots and medical personnel.

Open access

Sebastian Trancă, Cristina Petrișor, Natalia Hagău and Constantin Ciuce

Abstract

Background: Physiological composite scores are used to predict mortality in multiple trauma patients. Sepsis is the leading cause of late mortality in trauma victims brought about by immune suppression due to homeostasis dysregulation.

Objective: To determine whether APACHE II, SOFA, ISS and RTS scores can predict the occurrence of sepsis in multiple trauma patients.

Methods: APACHE II, SOFA, ISS, and RTS scores were calculated during the first twenty-four hours after the injury for sixty-four adult poly-traumatic patients. The occurrence of infectious complications was investigated over a fourteenday period. The infection-free rates for the multiple trauma patients were considered as end-points in the Kaplan- Meier plot analysis.

Results: For SOFA, a cutoff score of 4 points was identified as a predictor of the occurrence of sepsis, with 89% of the patients with SOFA<4 being infection-free, while 37% of those with SOFA>4 were infection-free (p<0.01). None of the patients with APACHE II≤5 points developed infections. Eighty-four percent of patients with APACHE II scores of 5-10 did not develop sepsis, while 49% with APACHE II≥11 were infection-free (p<0.01). A cutoff of 7 points was found to be most discriminative for RTS. Eighty-eight percent of the patients with RTS≥7 and 43% of those with RTS<7 were infection-free (p<0.01). Eighty-eight percent of patients with ISS<22 did not develop sepsis and 56% with ISS≥22 did not develop sepsis (p<0.01).

Conclusion: APACHE II, SOFA, ISS, and RTS functional severity scores can predict mortality as well as the occurrence of sepsis in multiple trauma patients.

Open access

Mihai Mărginean M, Sebastian Trancă, Alina Ardelean-Maghiar (Mărginean), Dan Dîrzu, Adina Huțanu, Oana Platon (Antal) and Dan Dobreanu

Abstract

Background: Sepsis is a systemic host response to an infection which may evolve into severe sepsis and septic shock. It raises many health care related concerns around the world, carrying almost 30% mortality rates and a high financial burden. The disease is characterized by the triggering of some inflammatory pathways that are ultimately proven deleterious to the host organism. Although antibiotics, fluid administration, vasopressor therapy and infectious source control remain the recommended management strategies, emerging scientific data proposes statins as a new line of treatment. These drugs were first introduced in clinical practice for their cholesterol-lowering effect but the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase and cholesterol biosynthetic pathway exhibits some less studied effects generally referred to as pleiotropic: anti-inflammatory, antithrombotic, immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties. Objective: To asses and compare the anti-inflammatory effect of two statins - Simvastatin and Rosuvastatin - measuring blood levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα using a previously described murinic model of sepsis. Methods: We compiled four groups (C, n=7; SEP, SV, RV, n=8). Statins were administered in two doses 18 and 3 hours before surgical intervention. Sepsis was induced using the caecal ligation and puncture technique. Blood samples were obtained by venepuncture from each subject in day 1, 4, 7 and 14 (the last samples were obtained by cardiac puncture). Complete blood count, Procalcitonin, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α levels were assessed. Results: White blood cell counts differed across the groups showing a higher count for the septic but untreated group. Procalcitonin reacted in all septic groups but both statin treated groups had lower levels when compared to untreated group. IL-1β levels were higher in the Rosuvastatin treated group. IL-6 levels were more heterogeneously dispersed but higher levels were noticed in the untreated septic group. The Simvastatin treated group had higher levels compared to the Rosuvastatin treated one. TNFα levels were higher in the septic untreated group and in the Rosuvastatin treated one. For the Simvastatin treated subjects, the level of TNFα was similar with the control group. Conclusion: We concluded that both drugs showed anti-inflammatory effects on the murinic CLP-induced sepsis model. Between the two, Simvastatin had greater impact by lowering blood levels of established pro-inflammatory markers.