This article concerns the assessment of selected physical and mechanical properties of a dump soil. The dump soil is a specific soil with a very heterogeneous internal structure. Next to each other, there may be lumps and crumbs of cohesive soils mixed with non-cohesive soils accompanied by a very diverse admixture of organic substance. In addition, the soil in the waste dump, in spatial terms, may significantly differ in consistency and density. This is the result of the process of forming a dump soil, which takes place in three stages: excavation, transport and dumping. A heterogeneous soil deposited within the waste dump is subject to further processes: consolidation, compaction and creeping. Changes occurring in the course of these processes have a significant impact on the development of the properties of the dump soil.
Due to the large diversity of the tested soils, the results of their properties were divided into two groups, based on type and consistency of soil. This allows us to estimate the selected properties of the dump soil only on the basis of their macroscopic analysis.
Polish standards concerning field investigation with the use of a Weight Sounding Test (WST) probe give interpretation of results for non-cohesive soils only. The lack of such interpretation for cohesive soils excludes this testing equipment from use. This paper presents the results of geotechnical site investigation and laboratory tests performed for Miocene clays in Carpathian Foredeep in the Cracow area. Based on the analysis of the results a correlation was determined between the characteristic values for the WST probe (number of half-turns NWST) and the selected properties of Miocene clays. The article is an attempt to create a complete interpretation of test results obtained for cohesive soil with WST equipment.
The paper evaluates the effectiveness of reinforcing a damaged earth structure with making counterfort drains in its slope. The system of counterfort drains changed the soil properties significantly over a long-term use. The evaluation was based on many years of field and laboratory tests and stability analysis. The field tests concerned the observation of N WST probing resistance change, and the laboratory tests concerned the change in soil consistency and water content. The paper presents the results of tests that were conducted over 13 years.